Mean: the average
Median: the middle value in a list of numbers
Standard Deviations: how much variation there is from the average
o Low: data points are close to the mean
o High: data points are far away from
Under the Shadow of Tuskegee: African
Americans and Health Care
Vanessa Northington Gamble, MD, PhD
On May 16, 1997, in a White House
ceremony, President Bill Clinton apologized for the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, the
40-year government study (1
Why do we use interviews?
1. Detailed descriptions
2. Describe process
3. Understand from multiple perspectives
4. Learning how events are interpreted
5. Identifying variables and framing hypothesis for quantitative research
1. Voluntary participation
2. No harm
3. Anonymity and confidentiality
1. Must be voluntary
Participation can decide if they want to be apart of the
study they have the ri
Why do we need empirical evidence?
What is common sense?
a. It is the loosely organized set of facts, observations, experiences,
insights, and pieces of received wisdom that each of us accumulates
over a lifetime in the course of encountering a
Journal of Contemporary
TEN LIES OF ETHNOGRAPHY: Moral Dilemmas of Field Research
GARY ALAN FINE
Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 1993 22: 267
The online version of this article can be
A MERICANS VIEWS OF M ENTAL HEALTH
AND ILLNESS AT CENTURYS E ND :
C O NTINUITY AND C HANGE
Public Report on the MacArthur
Mental Health Module,
1996 General Social Survey
Bernice A. Pescosolido
Jack K. Martin
Bruce G. Link
How do we Measure Complex Concepts?
o Indexes are ordinal measures of variables. Composite measures
of variables: measurements based on more than one data item.
o Why would you want to use an index, rather than a single item
to measure a
Types of sampling:
1. Qualitative samples (non-probability):
Helps us to understand social life
Provide more detailed understanding
Must always have random sampling
Must help us understand the social life and social
Qualitative Samples: (non-probability)
o Help us to understand social life
o Provide more detailed understanding
Quantitative samples: (probability)
o Allows us to generalize from our sample to the appropriate populati
What do we ask in surveys?
b. Attitudes, beliefs, opinions
Types of survey research
a. Mail surveys
b. Telephone surveys
c. Face-to-face surveys
Sexual Assault on Campus: A Multilevel,
Integrative Approach to Party Rape
ELIZABETH A. ARMSTRONG, Indiana University
LAURA HAMILTON, Indiana University
BRIAN SWEENEY, Indiana University
This article explains why rates of sexual assault remain high on col
What are experiments?
1. Take action
2. Observe the consequences of that action
When are experiments useful?
1. Relatively limited and well-defined concepts
2. Hypothesis testing
3. Explain, rather than describe
4. Small groups
Research in theory vs. research in practice
Real research is messy
How do we present out research findings?
The truth we discovered
Findings based on spe
Discipline of the catwalk: Gender, power and uncertainty in fashio
Ethnography 2008; 9; 429
The online version of this article can be found at:
Concept and Measurement
How do we measure what we are interested in?
Age? Date of birth, or year that they were born.
How religious an individual is? How often do you go to church?
What religion do you practice? How often do you practice your
Measuring Mental Illness Stigma
by Bruce Q. Link, Lawrence H. Yang, Jo C. Phelan, and Pamela Y. Collins
The effectiveness of efforts designed to address mental illness stigma will rest on our ability to understand stigma processes, the factors that produc