Answer Key for Assignment 1 (followed by a list of some things you need to know for exam 1).
*Important note: I will be at a conference on Tuesday Oct. 4. There will be NO CLASS that day.
However, our room will be available, and I would like to very stron
well known for critique of modern morality, attack on religion, the
threat of nihilism, revaluation of values, the eternal recurrence
traditional life, then wandered Europe (bc of sickness) when he wrote
most of his major wo
Narrator: Roquetin, spends his time writing a biography about Marquis de
Rollebon (had exception life, rise to power)
- Novel opens with R trying to understand a change (exact nat of it) that
has affected his exp
- Couldnt describe it
Simone de Beauvoir:
Ethics of Ambiguity
- provide ethics speaks of at end of B and N
- undermine total and equal freedom
- largely adopts Sartres view of freedom
- one way of understanding ex is by defining man by irreducible ambiguity
- ex still f
- 19th ce. philosophers categorized their work as modern
- Socrates Plato Aristotle
Like Jesus, Socrates never wrote anything down
Ancient: presocratics, Socrates, plato (geometry), Aristotle (biology), Stoics, Epicur
Separated natural world from supernatural world
Acknowledged that reason was the superior authority
Taught Anaximander; Anaximander taught Anaximenes
Milesians Thales, Anaximander and Anaximenes (after the city Mil
Ethics is concered with winning
Compares life to a game
Freedom of action?
De B recognizes this
Sartre thinks that you can have freedom in jail freedom of will
o Freedom to have projects, not necess
Human beings are motivated and caused to
act by pain and pleasure.
Bentham endorses hedonism. Hedonism is
the view that the only things of intrinsic
value are mental states or experiences.
The Principle of Utility
BOSTON UNIVERSITY, DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY
PH 100: INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY
Instructor: Professor Walter Hopp
Office: Department of Philosophy, School of Theology, 745 Commonwealth Avenue, Room 516
Phone: (617) 358-3620
Today: J.S. Mill (1806-73),
Utilitarianism: actions are right in proportion as they
tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to
produce the reverse of happiness (121).
Happiness is pleasure and the absence of pain
We should try to determine what, if
anything, is such that (a) we desire it for
its own sake, and (b) everything else is
desired for the sake of it.
There must, at least, be some thing or
class of things which are desirable for
their own sakes.
Socrates has just finished discussing the
claim, offered by Thrasymachus, that the
just is nothing else than the advantage of
the stronger. Glaucon is unsatisfied with
Socrates response, and challenges
Socrates claim that it is always be
Rosenbaum on Death
Dying, Death, and Being Dead
Dying is a process that takes place during ones
Death is the moment at which one becomes
Being dead is the state one is in (so to speak)
after ones death.
Rosenbaum is concerned-as was Epicur
Monday, February 7
Three kinds of desires:
1. Natural but not necessary. (Ex: Desire for
delicious food, amusement, etc.)
2. Natural and Necessary
a. For happiness.
b. For health of the body.
c. For life.
3. Empty or Vain. (Ex: Desire for
Outline 17: Bernard Williams Critique of Utilitarianism
1. Bernard Williams Critique of Utilitarianism
2. Negative Responsibility
3. Objection from Independence
4. Objection from Integrity
October 24, 2011
Lets start by considering t
Outline 15: Mills Utilitarianism 2
October 19, 2011
1. Only consequences matter
2. High/lower pleasures
3. Impartial standpoint
The main task for JSM utilitarianism is to come up with a foundation of morality or the highest
good in morality is. He believe
Outline 14-John Stuart Mills Utilitarianism
1. Mills Utilitarianism
2. Foundation of Morality
3. The value of Pleasure: Quantitative, Qualitative
October 17, 2011
Follower of Bentham but differs
Bentham: all sentient creatures try to peruse pleasure and a
1. Pain and pleasure as our masters
2. Motives and Pleasure-Pain
3. Is pleasure the only good?
4. The Experience Machine
Lets start by reconsidering the start of Jeremy Benthams An
Outline 10: Voluntary Action and Choice in Aristotles Ethics
The Voluntary and the Involuntary
Voluntary action and choice
Virtue and vice are in our power
October 5, 2011
Mean states: Aristotle thinks that mean state can vary from situation to situati
Outline 9: Virtuous Character and Happiness
1. Moral Virtue as Mean State
2. Happiness and virtuous character
3. Happiness and External Goods
Moral virtue is a state of character or dispositions to act or to feel in certain ways (not
1. Happyness is an activity
2. Aristotles partion of the soul and the coresponding division of virtues
3. Moral virtue and habituation
What is good life?
Happiness is an activity of the soul in acctuality.-soul makes the body living.
With virtue in a comp
Outline 5: Reason, Emotion and Morality
September 23, 2011
1. Platos tri-portite division of the soul
2. Justice in the soul
Recap platos republic. Issue is the definition of justice. Soc is trying to prove glacome that
Outline 4: Why be moral?
September 21, 2011
In the Republic, Socratess main task is to show what justice is and that justice is better
than injustice. More specifically, what Socratess interlocutors, including Glaucon, would
like Socrates to prove is tha
September 19, Monday
Cultural Relativism (continued) and Divine Command Theory
On Friday we started looking at some of the main claims that have been made by cultural relativists.
As you will remember, the first two claims go as follows: (1) Di
A Brief Outline for our Discussion of Euthyphro
The main question that Socrates asks Euthyphro in this dialogue is What is holy (pious)
and unholy (impious)?
First definition by Euthyphro: The holy is just what I am doing right now: pros