The Electron Transport Chain!
The Proton-Motive Force"
We saw that glycolysis
and the TCA cycle
convert some of the
energy available from
stored and dietary sugars
directly to ATP. "
However, most of the
metabolic energy that is
9. Contrast the effects of phosphorylation on glycogen synthase and glycogen phosGlycogen
employed and the consequences of amplification cascades.
1 Why are carbohydrates considered important molecules?
Carbohydrates serve several important functions as fuels, metabolic intermediates, and energy stores.
They are the basis of most of the organic matter on our planet. Carbohydrates serve as the struct
some of the physiological reasons for the symptoms a diabetic can display.
21. Summarize the energy reserves in a typical 70-kg man.
Outline the changes in metabolic processes that occur during starvation.
Fatty Acids Are Processed in Three
1 Surplus amino acids are
stored in proteasomes.
stored in protein scaffolds.
used as metabolic fuel.
All of the above.
None of the above.
2 Which of the following amino acids is glucogenic?
1. Which of the following statements regarding mitochondria and their components are
(a) Mitochondria are approximately 20 nm in diameter.
(b) The matrix compartment contains the enzymes of glycolysis.
(c) Mitochondria are bounded by two membrane
Endoplasmic Reticulum: entire ER enclosed by continuous membrane that account for half of all cell membranes
space enclosed in ER - lumen, cisternal space, is 10% of total cell volume
3 membrane domains in ER
Rough ER: covered by ribo
Chapter 5: The Organization and Sequences of Cellular Genomes
Section 1: The Complexity of Eukaryotic Genomes
Eukaryotes have larger genome size no relation b/w genomic size and complexity
o Human genomes have functional genes and genes that dont code for
Chapter 4: Fundamental of Molecular Biology
Gregor Mendel (1965) breeding of pease; classical principles of genetics
Genes: functional unit of inheritance, corresponding to segment of DNA that encodes a polypeptide
or RNA molecule
Allele: one copy of a ge
Chapter 6: Replication, Maintenance, and Rearrangements of Genomic DNA
Section 1: DNA Replication
DNA polymerase: enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of DNA
o DNA Polymerase I mainly involved in repair of damaged DNA
o All known DNA polymerases add a deox
Chapter 8: Protein Synthesis, Processing, and Regulation
Section 1: Translation of mRNA
All mRNAs read 5 to 3; polypeptide chains synthesized amino to carboxy terminus
Translation carried out on ribosomes; tRNA serves as adaptors b/w mRNA template and ami
Chapter 7: RNA Synthesis and Processing
Section 1: Transcription in Prokaryotes
E. coli was useful in determining transcription & its mechanisms; helps understand eukaryotic cells
RNA polymerase: enzyme that catalyzes the polymerization of ribonucleoside
Chapter 9: The Nucleus
Nucleus cells repository of genetic information and cells control center
o Location of DNA replication, transcription, and RNA processing
o Translation in cytoplasm
o Allows for control of gene expression in transcriptional level si
Chapter 13: The Plasma Membrane
All cells (eukaryotic & prokaryotic) have plasma membrane
Plasma membrane determines composition of cytoplasm
o Phospholipid bilayer impermeably to most hydrophilic molecules
o Proteins help ions pass
o Other proteins contr
Chapter 3: Cell Metabolism
Fundamental task of proteins act as enzymes
o Enzyme: catalysts that increase rate of all chemical rxns in cells
o W/o enzymes, biochemical rxns are slow; rxns that would take years occur in fraction of second
2 properties of en
Chapter 2: The Composition of Cells
Cells composed of water, inorganic ions, organic molecules; 70% of total cell mass
Water polar molecule (negative oxygen and positive hydrogen slightly)
Hydrophilic: soluble in water
Hydrophobic: poorly soluble in aqueo
Chapter 1: An Overview of Cells and Cell Research
All present-day cells have evolved form one primordial ancestor, but over years have become
Cells divided into 2 main classes
o Prokaryotic cells: cells lacking a nuclear envelope, cytoplasmic
Margaret J. Wheelock*, Yasushi Shintani, Masato Maeda, Yuri Fukumoto and Keith R. Johnson
University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Oral Biology and Eppley Cancer Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696, USA
*Author for c
Clin. Exp. Metastasis, 1994, 12, 101-107
The loss of E-cadherin mRNA transcripts in rat
prostatic tumors is accompanied by increased
expression of mRNA transcripts encoding
fibronectin and its receptor
Colin D. MacCalman, Pnina Brodt, Jean D. Doublet, Rom
Imaging, Diagnosis, Prognosis
A Switch from E-Cadherin to N-Cadherin Expression Indicates
Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Is of Strong and
Independent Importance for the Progress of Prostate Cancer
Karsten Gravdal,1 Ole J. Halvorsen,1 Svein A. Ha
Loss of E-Cadherin Promotes Metastasis via Multiple
Downstream Transcriptional Pathways
Tamer T. Onder, Piyush B. Gupta, Sendurai A. Mani, Jing Yang,
Eric S. Lander,
and Robert A. Weinberg
Whitehead Institute for
Journal of Cell Science 112, 1237-1245 (1999)
Printed in Great Britain The Company of Biologists Limited 1999
E-cadherin binding prevents -catenin nuclear localization and -catenin/LEF1-mediated transactivation
Sandra Orsulic*, Otmar Huber, H
Boston University School of Medicine/Metropolitan College
Biomedical Laboratory and Clinical Sciences
Name of Instructor: Galini Thoidis, PhD
Contact information: gt
1. The _ is the cellular location of _.
a. cytoplasm; protein synthesis
b. nucleus; protein synthesis
c. nucleus; genetic material
d. Both the rst and third answers are correct.
2. Biomolecules can be divided into four different classes. Which of the foll
Biological Chemistry Just Accepted Papers
Biological Chemistry Just Accepted Papers are papers published online, in
advance of appearing in the print journal. They have been peer-reviewed, accepted
and are online published in manuscript form, but have not
10/2/15: Peripheral efferent nervous system
1. Basic definitions:
a. Afferent: the portion of the peripheral nervous system that carries
information from the periphery to the central nervous system
b. Efferent: the portion of the peripheral nervous system
9/4/15: Membrane transport and signaling
1. Plasma Membrane Review
a. Phospholipid bilayer
i. Trans-membrane proteins
ii. Some carbs, cholesterol and glycolipids
iii. Fluid mosaic model: reflects the allowable movement of proteins
within the phospholipid
9/14/15-9/16/15: Action and graded potentials
1. Neuron: a single nerve cell (nerve fiber)
i. Dendrites: receive information-signals/stimuli
ii. Cell body
iii. Axon: electrical signal transmitted along axon
iv. Axon terminals
b. Nerve: a coll