Reducing the ecological footprint of a campus can have a direct and significant impact;
committed students can influence others; and the effects of education, like the ripples from a
stone thrown into a lake, can spread widely.
The Earths atmosphere is about 500 km (300 mi) thick, consisting of four layers: the bottommost
layer, the troposphere, is only 11 km (7 mi) thick but contains three-quarters of the atmospheres mass;
the stratosphere extends from 11-50 km (7
Fossil fuels, especially oil products, predominate today because they are efficient to burn, ship,
and store. Natural gas is cleaner burning, and coal is most plentiful. They are all considered nonrenewable because they are being extracted a
Urbanization has been driven by industrialization and by population growth. Cities grow quickly
if their climate, topography, and configuration of waterways are attractive, and/or they are surrounded
by land that people are leaving. Developi
Biological diversity, or biodiversity is the variety of life across all levels of biological
organization, including the diversity of species, genes, populations and communities.
Biodiversity can be thought of at three levels: species divers
The basic building blocks of matter are called atoms. Your bodyand, in fact, all of life, as well
as the nonliving worldis made up of atoms. Atoms are the smallest units that maintain the chemical
properties of the element. An atom's identity
Ethical standards are the criteria that help differentiate right from wrong. People ascribe value to
things in tow main ways. On way is to value something for the pragmatic benefits it brings us if we put it
to use. This is termed instrumenta
Environmental health threats include physical, chemical, biological, and cultural hazards.
Exposure to lead, asbestos, radon, and PBDEs occurs primarily indoors. Lead exposure
can occur though contamination of water flowing through older
Sometimes a systems output can serve as an input to that same system, a circular
process described as a feedback loop. Feedback loops are of type types- positive and negative.
The positive feedback loop is most common in human activities wher
Natural resources that are replenished over a short periods are known as renewable
natural resources. Some renewable natural resources, such as sunlight, wind, and wave energy
are perpetually renewed and essentially inexhaustible. In contrast
Natural selection is one of the central mechanisms of evolutionary change and is the
process responsible for the evolution of adaptive features. In its essence, it is a simple
statement about rates of reproduction and mortality: Those individ
An individual that plays only part of its role or uses part of its resources because of
competition or other types of species interactions is said to display a realized niche.
Competition leads to a realized niche because as two species compe
Renewable sources account for 13.5% of the worlds primary energy supply. Of that 13.5%,
fuelwood is most prevalent, but hydropower produces 90% of renewable electricity generation.
Passive solar heating works by designing buildings to max
Functions of the immune system
o Reclaim lost fluid to return to CV system:
Takes extra 3 L from interstitial fluid and puts into lymph
capillaries (this is called lymph)
o Protection against pathogens and cancer cells (nonspecific and speci
CHAPTER #24 & 25:
Functions & movements of all the organs (parts) of the digestive system (ex:
mass movements, etc.)
o Functions of the Digestive System:
Ingestion- introduction of food into the stomach
Mastication- chewing; facilitates chemical digesti
Micro Lab Exam 1 Notes
Ex 3.1 Intro to the Light Microscope
- Bright Field Microscopy: image from light that is transmitted through a specimen.
staining usually kills cells, especially bacterial cells.
- Condenser lens- concentrates light and makes illum
Respiratory zone (what it includes)
o Respiratory bronchioles to alveoli: where gas exchange occurs
Terminal bronchioles (no gas exchange) branch to respiratory
bronchioles which have a small amount of alveoli (least gas
CHAPTER #28 & #29:
Hormones of the reproductive systems and their functions
o Hormones are regulated by negative feedback
o During puberty, all hormone levels increase (the pituitary becomes less
sensitive to hormones that inhibit testosterone and estroge
CHAPTER #26 & #27:
Glomerular Capillary Pressure, Capsule Pressure, Blood Colloid Osmotic
o GCP- B.P inside the glomerulus; fluid flows from the capillaries into
Bowmans (goes ) (50mmHg)
o CP- pressure of the filtrate already in the lumen of the
Parts of the Heart and their functions
o Pericardium- outer membrane that surrounds the heart
Serous= thin and transparent; secrete pericardial fluid which
Visceral- lines the heart
Parietal- between visceral and fibrous
Different genotype possibilities: BB, Bb, bb.
[if !supportEmptyParas] [endif]
[if !supportLists]5. [endif]To read a genotype, always go by the dominant allele, in
this case there are only two phenotypes. NOTE! There are fewer phenotypes than
there are gen
Genotype: the alleles of an organism.
Phenotype: the characteristics of an organism.
Dominant allele: an allele that has the same effect on the phenotype
whether it is present in the homozygous or heterozygous state.
Recessive allele: an allele that only
Phenotype: An organism's physical appearance, or how it looks.
[if !supportEmptyParas] [endif]
Genotype: An organism's actual (real) genetics, the genes it carries.
[if !supportEmptyParas] [endif]
How to Write a Phenotype
Just objectively describe the org
When a trait is dominant, only one allele is
required for the trait to be observed. A dominant
allele will mask a recessive allele, if present. A
dominant allele is denoted by a capital letter (A
versus a). Since each parent provides
When a trait is recessive, an individual must have
two copies of a recessive allele to express the trait.
Recessive alleles are denoted by a lowercase letter
(a versus A). Only individuals with an aa genotype
will express a recessive
Patterns of Inheritance
The phenotype of an individual is determined by his or her genotype. The
genotype is determined by alleles that are received from the individuals parents
(one from Mom and one from Dad). These alleles control if a trait is dominant
life; living organisms
below, or less
below, Out, outside
under, less of, outward
or produced in