Chapter 1
Introduction to Probability and Statistics: Describing Data with Graphs
Variables and Data
Variables: any kind of characteristic that changes (over time or over unit)
Definitions
An experim
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Chapter 9
LargeSample Test of Hypotheses
Parts of a Statistical Test
1. the null hypothesis H0:
 assumed to be true until we can prove otherwise
2. The alternative hypothesis, Ha:
 will be accepted
Chapter 7 Sampling Distributions
Parameters are numerical descriptive measures for populations
for the normal distribution, the location and shape are described by and
for a binomial distribution c
The Normal Probability Distribution
Continuous Random Variable
continuous random variables can assume the infinitely many values corresponding to
points on a line interval
Examples:
Heights, weights
Chapter 5
Discrete random variables take on only a finite or countably infinite number of values
Three discrete probability distributions serve as models for a large number of practical
applications
Chapter 4
Probability
We measure how often using:
Relative Frequency = f/n
Basic Concepts
experiment: process by which an observation (or measurement) is obtained
Experiment: record an age; toss a
Chapter 3
Describing Bivariate Data
When two variables are measured on a single experimental unit, the resulting data are
called bivariate data
you can describe each variable individually, and you c
Chapter 2
Describing Data with Numerical Measures
Graphical methods may not always be sufficient for describing data
Numerical measures can be created for both populations and samples
a parameter i