STATISTICAL INFERENCE
The process of going from the known sample to the unknown population is called statistical
inference. In other words, it is the procedure whereby inferences about a population ar
METHODS OF ESTIMATION
We have considered a number of criteria by which we may judge an estimate, which is, given
a proposed estimate for an unknown parameter whether it is unbiased, consistent, effici
TESTING OF STATISTICAL HYPOTHESIS
Before taking up the discussion of problem of testing of hypothesis. We shall go through
certain concepts that are of basic importance.
Statistical hypothesis: Any st
TEST BASED ON NORMAL DISTRIBUTION (FOR LARGE SAMPLE)
Sampling of Attributes: The presence of an attribute in samples may be treated as success
and its absence as failure. In this case, a sample of n o
CONFIDENCE LIMIT FOR
TEST BASED ON FISHERS Z - TRANSFORMATION
TEST FOR CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Suppose the given sample has been drawn from a bivariate normal population with
correlation coefficient
116
Confidence limit for population mean
TEST BASED ON t DISTRIBUTION
Suppose Y and Z an independent random variables, Y has a chi-square distribution with
(n 1) degree of freedom (df ) and Z has the
100
TEST BASED ON CHI-SQUARE DISTRIBUTION
The square of a standard normal variate is known as a chi-square variate with one degree of
freedom (df ) , i.e.
X
X ~ N ( , ) , then Z =
~ N (0,1)
2
iv
Terrorism
Terrorism has existed in the American history for quite some time now. Terrorism can be
dated back to the 1800s and still occurring to this day. The most known act of terrorism in
America to