Nutrition- taking food in, taking it apart, and taking it up.
A. Herbivores- eat mostly plants or algae.
B. Carnivores- mostly eat other animals.
C. Omnivores- consume both.
D. An animals diet must supply chemical energy, organic molecules, and essenti
The Nervous System
A. Synaptic Transmission
1. Occurs when a signal reaches the terminal end branches of a nerve cell.
2. At the terminal end branches, there are voltage gated calcium channels
which are opened when a signal arrives, causing calcium ion
A. Components of blood
1. Liquid- plasma
a) The plasma contains:
(1) Inorganic salts in the form of dissolved ions
(a) Act as a buffer to keep blood pH stable.
(b) Maintain osmotic balance of blood
(c) These ions are also important in the
Functions of membranes:
A. Membrane proteins serve as:
1. transport proteins, either as channels or as pumps.
2. Could be enzymes
a) Ex. enzymes in the cell membrane break down neurotransmitters.
3. Signal transduction something outside the cell causes
Photosynthesis- Calvin Cycle (Light independent reactions)
A. Begins in the stroma (Empty space inside chloroplast)
B. Phase 1: Carbon Fixation
1. Enzyme called Rubisco fixes (6) CO2 into (6) RuBP molecules, forming
(6) 6 carbon chains.
2. Then, eac
Transcription- DNA RNA
1. Promoter regions on the DNA strand interact with transcription factors and
form the transcription initiation complex.
2. RNA polymerase recognizes this region as the place to start transcription.
A. Factors that affect enzyme function:
b) Graph goes up at the beginning bc of thermal kinetics
heat goes up, substrates collide more more reactions.
c) The optimal temperature in humans is 37
d) Graph drops off steeply afte
A. Sunlight is converted to glucose and other organic molecules. through
photosynthesis. The glucose is converted to ATP through the use of O2 produced
during photosynthesis. ATP is used to power cell activities.
B. Laws of Thermodynamics
A. Lab: Comparing DNA Sequences to Understand Evolutionary Relationships with BLAST
a. Hypothesis: The organism in the fossil is a crustacean.
Form hypothesis as to where the fossil should be placed on the
Download gene file
AP Bio 11.53
2) There are different causes behind animal behavior. The proximate cause is how a
behavior occurs or is modified, meaning the outside factor or stimulus that causes the
behavior and which part of the animals body enables the beh