10.1.1 Describe the features of a homologous series.
Homologous series have the same general formula but differ by the number of CH2
groups. They have similar chemical properties but there are gradual changes in
10.1.2 Predict and exp
9.1.1 Define oxidation and reduction in terms of electron loss and gain.
Oxidation: the loss of electrons
Reduction: the gain of electrons
9.1.2 Deduce the oxidation number of an element in a compound.
Always determine elements that never change their oxi
Topic 9 and 19: Acids and bases
8.1.1 Define acids and bases according to the Brnsted-Lowry and Lewis
Acids: proton donor
Bases: proton acceptor
Acids: electron-pair acceptor
Bases: electron-pair donor
8.1.2 Deduce whether or
7.1.1 Outline the characteristics of chemical and physical systems in a
state of equilibrium.
Equilibrium is reached when the rate of the forward and reverse reactions are equal.
Equilibrium is dynamic i.e. the reaction dont stop
Topic 6 and 16: Kinetics
6.1.1 Define the term rate of reaction.
Rate of reaction: the decrease in the mass or volume of the reactants over time and
the increase of the mass or volume of the products over time.
6.1.2 Describe suitable experimental procedu
Topic 5 and 15: Energetics
5.1.1 Define the terms exothermic reaction, endothermic reaction and
standard enthalpy change of reaction (H).
Exothermic reaction: One that releases heat to the surrounding as a result of
forming products with stronger binds th
Topic 4 and 14: Bonding
4.1.1 Describe the ionic bond as the electrostatic attraction between
oppositely charged ions.
An ionic bond is formed from the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged
4.1.2 Describe how ions can be formed as a re
Topic 3 and 13: Periodicity
3.1.1 Describe the arrangement of elements in the periodic table in the
order of increasing atomic number.
The elements are placed in increasing atomic number in the periodic table.
3.1.2 Distinguish between the terms group and
Topic 2 and 12: Atomic structure
2.1.1 State the position of protons, neutrons and electrons in the atom.
Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus. The electrons are found in the
energy levels or shells surrounding the nucleus.
2.1.2 State the relati
Topic 1: Quantitative chemistry
1.1.1 Apply the mole concept to substances
This is a stupid objective. Basically, the molecular mass of a substance equals how
many grams needed for 1 mole.
1.1.2 Determine the number of particles and the amount of substanc