Sagan - the baloney detection kit
Hominem attacking the person making an argument, rather than the argument itself from authority (appeal to inappropriate authority) accepting a view or argument just on the basis that it originates from someone taken
The problem of induction and a possible solution
Why not Inductivism?
Inductivism: 1- make observations to gather facts in the form of singular statements 2- gather singular statements together to infer universal laws
This A is P This A is P
Feyerabend & Lauden
Against Method and for it
Science is an essentially anarchistic enterprise: theoretical anarchism is more humanitarian and more likely to encourage progress than its law-andorder alternatives
we review IBE arguments and how to evaluate them?
A new kind of argument
Inference to the best explanation is also sometimes called abduction It purports to provide probable support for its conclusion. Inference to
The instructions for the final exam are posted below. Review them now so there will be no surprises. This exam is worth a possible 400 pts in total. Note that not all questions are weighted equally! You may want to look through the test in its entirety fi
What is objectivity?
is part of the common sense view of science that it is objective.
is supposed to be one of its virtues and something that sets it apart from some other sorts of pursuits.
what do we mean when we call
History, Paradigms, Anomalies, Revolution
The importance of history
Prescriptive - attempt to describe the way something ought to be. Such an account of science might focus on ideal practice, or what is most rational, but might not look at all like w
Material that may not be found in the readings
modality of a statement describes a degree of confidence in its truth. modality of a conclusion says something about the strength of the evidence available for that conclusion. all argum
How to Lie with Statistics
- Add up all the values in the set and divide by the number of items in the set.
(Also sometimes called the arithmetic average)
- The middle value; i.e. the value that has half of the items higher tha
Good representation of data
Post hoc analysis
1. [6 pts] Which of the following describe sentences which are instances of argumentative language?
a) claims that are known to be true or false by at least someone b) claims that are either true or false,