Introduction to Biotechnology- BT101
Cell biology occupies a central position in the life sciences
Cell biology will borrow from physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology
Fundamentally there are two basic types of cells
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
The six kingdoms of living things are divided into two
major groups, Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.
There are two prokaryote kingdoms and four
Structure and Function of
What is a Macromolecule?
Organic molecules that weigh more than
100,000 daltons are referred to as
These macromolecules are constructed of
smaller units called polymers. These
polymers are subdivi
How to study genes on genomes
Isolating Genes DNA hybridization (DNA fingerprinting)
Gene amplification - (PCR)
DNA Fingerprinting technique
Cloning and Expression of
Bioprocess engineering involve
Chloroplast and Photosynthesis
Chloroplasts are unique to plants, look like mitochondria but have an extra
Inner membrane doesnt fold into cristae,
Electron transport chain (ATP generation), phosynthetic light absorbing system
is in thylakoid
Plant and Animal
Biotechnology ; Applications
Classical Plant breeding
The plus points
Germplasm stored, not seeds.
Embryos can be rescued.
Haploid production by anther or
ovary culture useful for cereals.
Oil Palms, co
Protoplast and cell fusion
Plant and most microbial cells
are made up of cell wall which
gives shape to the cell. Below
the cell wall Is cell membrane
which houses cell components.
It is possible to remove cell wall
using enzymes so as to get only
Enzymes and Uses
Enzymes are biomolecules that catalyze (i.e. increase the rates of) chemical reactions.
Almost all enzymes are proteins.
In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process are called
substrates, and the enzyme converts
Cell Structure & Function
ALL cells contain:
- thin membrane that separates cell from external
- controls entrance and exit of materials
- area containing DNA