Germany: Social Democrats and Revisionism
SPD (Social Democratic Party) founded in 1875
Divided between reformers and revolutionaries
Bismarcks Repression of the SPD
12 years of persecution under Bismarck forged the character of the
Second Industrial Revolution, and impact
Redesigning of cities
Conditions of Women
Rise of Political Feminism
Development of Labor politics/socialism
Development to WWI
Industrialization/Political Unrest in Russia (th
Louis XVIII A Bourbon monarch, restored in 1814 under a constitution.
Became repressive after ultraroyalists convinced him that liberals
assassinated duke of Berri. Response: censorship & arrests.
Nicholas I Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationalism. Czar of Rus,
Intellectual Life (READING&LITERACY)
Reading became a bigger part of everyday life in Europe, more in the
West than in the East.
By 1900s: West- approx. 85% literacy. East- 30 to 60%.
Literacy and reading was used as a major tool in education in Europe
Emile and Social Contract.
stressed difference between
Wars of Independence in Latin America
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, Creole priest, called for a rebellion
& promised social change & land reform.
Amassed 80,000 followers caught & executed in 1811.
Successor, Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon was even more
Nationalism Belief that people with common bonds should share the
Liberalism Political: Based on enlightenment & the 1789 Decl. of
Rights of Man & Citizen. Supported written constitutions & representative
govt. Economic: Sought remo