P IP E S Y S TEM S
A N D N ETW O R K S
Dr WCDK FERNANDO
FLO W LO SSES IN PIPES
Losses
Major
losses
Minor
losses
WCDKF-KDU
2
M IN O R LO SSES
Loss of head due to sudden
enlargement
V2/2
g
he
P/g
WCDKF-KDU
3
Loss ofhead due to sudden contraction
hc
Z + P/g

PIPE SYSTEMS
AND NETWORKS
Dr WCDK FERNANDO
EGL & HGL for a Pipe System
Energy equation
V2 p
V2 p
1 1 1 z1 hL 2 2 2 z2
2g
2g
All terms are in dimension of length
(head, or energy per unit weight)
HGL Hydraulic Grade Line
HGL
EGL Energy Grade Line
EGL
p

HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE
LESSON 4
HYDROSTATIC LAW
Rate of increase of pressure in a vertical
direction is equal to weight density of the
fluid.
dp dy
WCDKF-KDU
2
PRESSURE VARIATION
dp dy
p2
y2
dp dy
p1
y1
p 2 p1 y 2 y1
p 2 p1
y1 y 2
p1
p2
y1 y 2 constant

MAJOIR INDUSTRIAL SAFTY AND
LABOUR LEGISLATIVE ENACTMENTS
IN SRILANKA ON A CHRONOLOGICAL
BASIS
Written By; Henegedara DNK
MAJOIR INDUSTRIAL SAFTY AND
LABOUR LEGISLATIVE ENACTMENTS
IN SRILANKA ON A CHRONOLOGICAL
BASIS
Assignment No. 10
Module Code: MA3001

BUOYANCY
LESSON 5
ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE
Archimedes Principle states that the buoyant
force has a magnitude equal to the weight of
the fluid displaced by the body and is directed
vertically upward.
WCDKF-KDU
2
BUOYANCY
Two system of forces
1. A downward gra

TURBINES
TURBINES
The hydraulic turbine is a prime mover that uses the
energy of flowing water and converts it into the
mechanical energy.
Turbines are devices that extract energy from a flowing
fluid.
The mechanical energy developed by a turbine is us

Problems and Solutions
for
Ordinary Diffferential Equations
by
Willi-Hans Steeb
International School for Scientific Computing
at
University of Johannesburg, South Africa
and
by
Yorick Hardy
Department of Mathematical Sciences
at
University of South Africa