158 A systems approach to circuits, measurements and control
3.2
Active filters
The filters that we have studied so far have all been passive filters that is, they
consisted only of passive components. The Butterworth and Chebyschev filters
were both pass

94 A systems approach to circuits, measurements and control
2.3
Solution of network equations
Introduction
Sparse matrices are an important phenomenon in engineering. They occur
regularly in network problems, and so, special methods used in their solution

3
Synthesis of analogue circuits
We have studied how (network) functions, systems of differential equations,
matrices and other mathematical abstractions can represent physical reality. We
will now look at this from the other side can we construct physica

1
Transform methods
Some of the different forms of a signal, obtained by transformations, are shown
in the figure.
X(s)
L
s jw
-1
jw s
L
X(t)
F
X(jw)
-1
F
F
X*(t)
X*(jw)
-1
F
jwt
jwt
e
X(nT)
Z
-1
Z
z
z e
w=(z-1)/(z+1)
X(z)
X(w)
z=(1+w)/(1-w)
We will very

2
State and state space
We have been studying electrical circuits with reference to the complex
frequency s and the s-plane. You have seen this to be a technique that is most
convenient, especially when you are interested in the steady-state behaviour of

164 A systems approach to circuits, measurements and control
3.3
Modern trends in circuit analysis and design
In this section, we will briefly examine some of the more modern trends in circuit
analysis and design, especially those techniques that attempt

78 A systems approach to circuits, measurements and control
2.2 Transformations, canonical forms and eigen-values
Introduction
We have seen how the dynamics of a linear, time invariant network may be
represented by a set of linear state-space equations, d

EE 423 Power System Analysis
[Section 2 Power System Faults]
Learning Objectives
To be able to perform analysis on power systems with regard to load flow, faults and system
stability
Outline Syllabus
1.
Power Flow Analysis: (8 hrs)
Analogue methods of pow