Dr. Odette Laneuville
Different Types of Eukaryotic RNA
messenger RNA, variable amounts, code for proteins
ribosomal RNA, abundant, contribute to the structure of the
transfer RNA, moderate level
1. Compare the DNA mutations caused by environmental factors.
The DNA caused by environmental factors are post replication, therefore excape the
editing exonucleolytic activity of DNApolymerase. As a result, they are permanently
incorporated into the DNA
Essentially reviewed the phage
pdf file. The prof added some new slides.
The phage has different life cycles. The tail of the phage binds to the external
membrane during infection as phage DNA is injected into the bacteria. The cohesive
phage is a virus that infects a bacteria. The capsule stays attached to the protein
exterior while the phage DNA is injected into the bacteria.
The bacterial ends are coiled and ligated to ligase and gyrase.
There are different life cycles/sta
The lac operon is when there is low glucose and when lactose is present. The
bacteria cant directly digest the lactose but can use beta-gal to break down into
more usable sugars.
E. coli can synthesize more than 20 amino acids however, the bacteria
Transcription is the step in the central dogma that focuses on from DNA RNA.
The steps are
The antisense strand (35) being used as a matrix strand for transcription
RNApol catalyzes the transcription reaction and the final product is an RNA.
In prokaryotes, gene expression mainly occurs from mRNA synthesis regulation.
Prokaryotes lack a lipid defined nucleus while eukaryotes have a nucleus, this allows
prokaryotes to have coupled transcription-translation so transcription/translatio
Mobile genetic elements
Recombination is used for DNA arrangments that include mobile genetic elements.
Barbara McClintock discovered mobile genetic elements from maize corn. Maize
corn has 49-78% of the genome of mobile genetic elements from re
Genetic stability requires mechanisms to replicate DNA and to repair damaged DNA
that occurs continually. Around 999/1000 base pairs are efficiently corrected.
There are a lot of genetics disorders/disease that are well characterized.
Cells are under continuous synthesis and degradation.
The net synthesis rate is the rate and synthesis minus the rate of degradation.
Protein degradations allows to regulate protein levels, prevent abnormal protein
accumlination, control development/growt
Dr. Luc Poitras
There are 6 components the lectures will cover. Topics are:
mRNA maturation (specific to eukaryotes)
mRNA transport and localization
There are the different control
The leucine zipper is a dimerization motif and has 8-10 leucines placed 7 aminoa
acids apart so they align along the alpha helix to produce an amphipathic helix with
a hydrophobic surface that facilitates protein-protein interactions through th
Regulation of Gene
Dr. Odette Laneuville
Dr. O. Laneuville BCH/BIO 3170
Bacteriophage lambda (): life cycles
When phage infects a bacteria, the tail of the phage binds to the external membrane and
the phage DNA is injected i
Solutions to video answers
1. List four different MGE and their characteristics in the human genome.
A MGE is a sequence os specific length that encodes enzymes that give it the ability
for intercellular or intracellular genome mobility. They can be auton
Proakryotes methylate DNA in a A and C. It is done by DNA methylase and protects
DNA and also identifies foreign DNA (there are endogenous and exodongenous
pattersn) and unmethylated DNA is often cleaved by endonucleases.
Its role is methylation control a
Another method for recombination is DNA rearrangements using mobile genetic
Mobile genetic elements are sequences of DNA that encode for enzymes that enable
them to have intercellular or intracellular movement (move within a genome or in
Gene expression can be controlled through nonsense mRNA degradation. This
mechanism eliminates mRNA that have an incomplete reading frame because nonsense mutations introduce a stop codon at the incorrect spot.
Nonsense mutations can be introdu
The first step in RNA maturation is capping the mRNA transcription with a 5 cap in
eukaryotic DNA. This is not done to prokaryotic DNA.
Capping occurs once 20-30nt have been synthesized and involved three different
The steps involved a
PIC is the pre-initiation complexes.
Initiation is a complex process. A large mediator complex is involved in transmitting
instructions from regulatory proteins to the RNApol2.
In addition, there needs to be chromatin remodeling and histone mod
Controlling gene expression through DNA methylation
Methylation is done differently in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Prokaryote methylation is done through adenine and cytosine methylation and
functions to protect from foreign DNA insertion.
There are two fundamental experiments that proved DNA is the genetic material.
Griffith and Avery discovered the transforming principle.
Essentially, genetic material can be transferred from two pneumonia bacteria
strains. They used a harmless s
Wild type drosophila have a white gene expressed and therefore have full red eyes.
Thw white gene is located near heterochromatin but there are boundaries in
between the heterochromatin and the gene. However, if the gene undergoes a
Recombination plays a variety of roles that include:
Necessary for genetic diversity
Essential for maintaining genome integrity
Restart replication forks that are blocked by DNA breaks
Regulate some genes expression levels
Recombination is f
29 fvrier 2011 Laboratoire # 3 : Rduction de la 3-nitroactophnone
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Le mcanisme simplifi de la raction d'oxydo-
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