Experiment 5
Thermodynamics of Cyclohexane VapourLiquid Boundary
Goal
The goal of this experiment is to measure the enthalpy of vapourization vapH of cyclohexane.
Available Materials and Equipment
 Cyclohexane
 Measuring device constituted of a bulb jo
CHM 2131
Physical Chemistry Lab
Fall 2013
Manual revised 2006 by Maude Boulanger
(with Prof. P. Mayer and Prof. D. Bryce)
Contact information:
Prof. Wendy Pell
phone 5625800 ext 6041office
MCD 409
email Wendy.Pell@uottawa.ca
1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Schedul
Experiment 1
Thermodynamics of an Equilibrium in Solution
Goal
The purpose of this experiment is to determine the thermodynamic equilibrium constant K and
the standard Gibbs energy G for the following reaction in presence of an acid catalyst:
O
O
+
H3C
OH
CHM2131 2013 Thermodynamics of Gases and Solutions
Assignment 1
Review General Chemistry
Due: Tuesday September 17, in class
1. Diluting sulphuric acid with water is exothermic.
H2SO4(l) H2SO4(aq)
a) Determine the heat of reaction, rxnHo for diluting 1.00
Chemistry from first year.
Dimensional Analysis:
Units are critical to obtaining the correct solution!
Ideal Gas Law in all its glory!
Thermochemistry:
Internal Energy is the sum of heat and work, = q + w
Heat and Calorimetry
in all its various forms (mol
CHM 2131
Chemical Thermodynamics of
Gases and Solutions
What is a gas? Ch 1
Equilibrium Thermodynamics
predates the concepts of atoms and
molecules
entirely empirical set of laws and
equations of state that describe
equilibrium macroscopic systems
 laws
Physical EquilibriaChapter 4
We have seen chemical/physical processes are
governed by state functions, especially Gibbs
free energy
G
dG =
p
G
dp +
dT
T p ,n 1,n 2
T ,n 1,n 2
True for single or multicomponent system. Molar
Gibbs energy for single c
PhysicalEquilibriaChapter4
Wehaveseenchemical/physicalprocessesaregovernedbystate
functions,especiallyGibbsfreeenergy
G
dG =
p
G
dp +
dT
T p ,n 1,n 2
T ,n 1,n 2
Trueforsingleormulticomponentsystem.MolarGibbsenergyfor
singlecomponentiscalledthechemic
CHM 2131
The First Law Chapter 2
The internal energy of an isolated
system is constant
The Zeroth Law
The zeroth law defined temperature
and the flow of heat between bodies
What are the 3 + 0th Laws
0th Law: defines temperature and thermal
equilibrium
1st
CHM 2131 all about the 2nd law
Chapter 3
So far:
the 0th Law defines temperature and
thermal equilibrium;
and
the 1st Law is all about conservation of
energy and the relationships between
work and heat;
Works for the 1st law but
doesnt work in the real wo
Simple MixturesChapter 5
Partial molar quantities
Perfect gases
Ideal solutions
Non ideal solutions
Activity
Colligative properties
Partialmolarquantities
True for single or multicomponent system. Molar
Gibbs energy for single component is called the
che
Simple MixturesChapter 5
Partial molar quantities
Perfect gases
Ideal solutions
Non ideal solutions
Activity
Colligative properties
Partial molar quantities
True for single or multicomponent system. Molar
Gibbs energy for single component is called the
c

Name:_
Student Number:_
Assignment 1
Distributed Sept 18, Due Sept 25 in class
1. A real gas follows the van der Waals equation of state with a=0.50 m6 Pa mol2. The
gas occupies a volume of 5.00x104 m3 mol1 at 273 K and 3.0 MPa.
a) Calculate the cons

Name:_
Student Number:_
Assignment 2
Distributed Oct 2, Due Oct 9 in class
1. Calculate the standard molar enthalpy change at 360 K for the production of 3 mols of hydrogen
peroxide:
H2(g) + O2(g) H2O2(l) fH0 = 187.78 kJ/mol
We have to solve fH at 360K

Name:_
Student Number:_
CHM2131 Assign 3
Distributed Oct 10, Due Oct 21 in class
1. On a cold, dry morning after a frost the temperature was 5o C and the partial pressure of water in
the atmosphere was 0.20 kPa. Will the frost sublime? What partial pre

Name:_
Student Number:_
Assignment 1
Distributed Sept 18, Due Sept 25 in class
1. A real gas follows the van der Waals equation of state with a=0.50 m6 Pa mol2. The
gas occupies a volume of 5.00x104 m3 mol1 at 273 K and 3.0 MPa.
a) Calculate the cons
CHM 2131 Midterm
1/9
Name:
Student Number:
CHM 2131
Midterm Test, October 24th 2014
This is a closed book exam with no notes allowed.
Calculators are permitted.
Write all the formulas that you use to solve the questions and show all
your work.
Remember to
CHM 2131 the 3rd law
3rd Law: gives an absolute
numerical value to entropy; you
cant get to 0 K
The third law
The entropy of all pure crystalline solids at 0 (K) is 0
Why?
 at 0, there is no thermal motion and atoms are oriented in some kind of regular
u
Experiment 7
Conductivities of Strong and Weak Electrolytes
Goal
The goal of this experiment is to determine the limiting molar conductivity m of potassium
chloride and acetic acid, and the acetic acid acidity constant Ka.
Available Equipment and Material
Experiment 6
Analysis of an Ionic Equilibrium in Solution
Goal
The goal of this experiment is to determine the mean activity coefficient of hydrochloric acid
over a range of concentrations, the DebyeHckel constant A and the standard potential E of the
re
Experiment 2
A Raoults Law Experiment
Goal
The goal of this experiment is to study the total vapour pressure of different binary solutions as a
function of chemical composition.
Available Materials and Equipment
 Hexane
 Heptane
 Ethanol
 Acetone
 Ch
CHM 2131: Assignment 5
Due in class November 8
1. Using values found in standard thermodynamic tables (e.g. Table 2.8 of our text) and
calculate fGo for Fe(g) at 400.0 K i) assuming that fHo is constant in the range of
temperature 240 to 400K, using the G
CHM 2131 Assignment 3
Due in class October 22
1. A 2.5 mole sample of an ideal gas for which CVm = 3/2 R undergoes the following two
step process: (1) From an initial state of the gas described by T = 10.0o C and P= 2.00 x
104 Pa, the gas is warmed at co
CHM 2131 2013 Assignment 6
Due: December 6 (my office)
1.The molar conductivities of 0.001 M solutions of potassium chloride, sodium chloride and
potassium sulfate are 149.9, 126.5 and 235.3, respectively. Calculate an approximate value
for the molar cond
CHM 2131
Assignment 2
Due Sept. 27, in class
1. At sufficiently high temperatures, the van der Waals equation has the
form:
P=
RT
Vm b
Justify this behaviour using a potential energy diagram (like fig 1.13 in your text).
2. a) Determine the Boyle Temperat
CHM2131 Assignment 4
Due in class Tuesday October 29
1. A 3.85 mole sample of an ideal gas for which Cvm = 3/2 R undergoes the following
twostep process: (1) From an initial state of the gas described by T = 14.5 C and P =
2x104 Pa, the gas is cooled at
Experiment 3
Molecular Weight Determination by BoilingPoint Elevation
of a Benzoic Acid Solution
Goal
The goal of this experiment is to determine the molar mass of benzoic acid MB in ethanol and in
chlorobutane.
Available Materials and Equipment
 Benzoi