1.The fundamental attribution error involves
becoming more extreme in one's individual opinions following group discussion.
performing a complex task more poorly when in the presence of others.
underestimating situational constraints on anothe
Chapter 8: Learning
Adaptability: our capacity to learn new behaviours that enable us to cope with changing circumstances
Learning: in psychology, learning is a process which leads to changes in behaviour and/or mental
processes; these chan
PSY1102 Psychology Midterm Review
Behaviour Genetics: The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and
environmental influences on behaviour.
Environment: Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and
Chapter 4 : Nature, Nurture and Human Diversity
Introduction (study notes only)
What makes us who we are? Am I strictly guided by my genes or is it possible that the
environment makes a difference? Nature or nurture?
Nature : Anything ge
1.The first psychological laboratory was established by
2.One of the earliest schools of thought in psychology was
Chapter 2: Research Methods
Scientific method: the system of rules used by scientists to conduct and evaluate their research
The Role of Theory
theory: a broad set of statements describing the relation between a phenomenon and the
54. Using what you know about the major ideas of evolutionary psychology, which of the
following grand-parents will spend the most time with, the most resources on and will be closer
to his or her grand-children:
a) the paternal grand-father
b) the patern
1. Heart disease and depression may both result when chronic stress triggers:
a) release of oxytocin
b) persistent inflammation
c) release of NK cells
d) production of lymphocytes
2. The reduced self control of murderers is most clos
1 The persistence of learning over time most clearly depends on
the serial position effect. Incorrect
proactive interference. Incorrect
visual encoding. Incorrect
memory. (True Answer )Correct
2 The process of encoding refers to
the persistence of learn
Phrenology highlighted the presumed functions of
specific brain regions. (True Answer )Correct
synaptic gaps. Incorrect
the myelin sheath. Incorrect
The person most likely to suggest that the shape of a person's
skull indicates t
Psychologists define learning as the process of
adapting to the environment. Incorrect
responding to external stimuli. Incorrect
reinforcing behavioral responses. Incorrect
acquiring new information or relatively enduring behaviors. (True
Which term refers to all the mental activities associated with
thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating?
cognition (True Answer )Correct
universal grammar Incorrect
Professor Pegler's research efforts f
At about eight months of age, people across the world start to
_ strangers; as adults, they prefer the company of those
whose attributes are _ to their own.
fear; similar (True Answer )Correct
enjoy; different Incorrect
fear; different Incorrect
Normal visual sensation in the absence of complete visual
perception is best illustrated by
The process of receiving and representing stimulus energies by
the nervous system is called
Motivation is defined by psychologists as
an impulse to accomplish something of significance. Incorrect
rigidly patterned behavior characteristic of all people. Incorrect
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a
goal. (True Answe
The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to
dismiss the value of replication. Incorrect
reject any ideas that can't be scientifically tested. Incorrect
exaggerate their ability to have foreseen an outcome. (True
The school of thought in psychology that turned away from the
study of consciousness during the first half of the last century
behaviorism. (True Answer )Correct
humanistic psychology. Incorrect
Experts would most likely agree that intelligence is a(n)
inborn ability to perform well on standard intelligence
mental ability to learn from experience. (True Answer )Correct
general trait that underlies success on nearly any task.
Which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the
study of how people think about influence, and relate to one
developmental psychology Incorrect
social psychology (True Answer )Correct
personality psychology Incorrect
1.An organism's complete set of genetic instructions is called the
2.Compared with fraternal twins, identical twins are
less similar in their risk of developing Alzheimer's d
1.Dr. Matsuko's major research interest is the long-term effects of child-rearing practices on
the psychological adjustment of offspring. It is most likely that Dr. Matsuko is a(n)
1.Psychological disorders that researchers believe are learned, such as phobias, are most
likely to be treated with
2.The treatment of serious psychological disor
1.Studies of adopted children and their biological and adoptive families demonstrate that
with age, genetic influences on intelligence
become more apparent.
become less apparent.
become more difficult to disentangle from environmental influenc
1.At about eight months of age, people across the world start to _ strangers; as
adults, they prefer the company of those whose attributes are _ to their own.
1.Researchers Friedman and Rosenman refer to individuals who are very time-conscious,
supermotivated, verbally aggressive, and easily angered as
1.At one time, disordered people were simply warehoused in asylums. These were replaced
with psychiatric hospitals in which attempts were made to diagnose and cure those with
psychological disorders. This best illustrates one of the beneficial
1.Which of the following most accurately describes emotional arousal?
Emotions prepare the body to fight or flee.
Emotions are voluntary reactions to emotion-arousing stimuli.
Because all emotions have the same physiological basis, emotions are primari
1.Which personality theory emphasizes the interaction between the individual and the
environment in shaping personality?
2.According to Freud's theory, personality arises in response
Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders:
- Deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts feelings or behaviours.
1) Statistically infrequent behaviour
o Deviates from social norms and standards
Chapter 12: Stress and Health:
- A process by which we perceive and respond to certain events called stressors that we
appraise as threatening or challenging.
- In acute stress, it can mobilize immune system for feinding off infection and healing
Chapter 4: Nature vs. Nurture
Twin and Adoption Studies:
- Used to test the nature and nurture components between identical and fraternal twins.
- The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on
- Treatment involving psychological techniques
- Consists of interactions between trained therapists and someone seeking to overcome
psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth.
- Prescribed medica
Chapter 16: Therapy
Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Therapy
- Presumed Problem
o Unconscious conflicts from childhood experiences
o Fixation and repression
- Therapy Aim
o Reduce anxiety through self-insight
- Therapy Technique