What is Psychology?
Definition of psychology:
o The science of the study of the mind (psyche) or mental processes
Transition from physical to non-physical
Psyche is the totality of the human mind, consciousness, and unconsciousness.
ENDED AT LINEAR PERSPECTIVE LAST TIME
> light and shadow: well-lit objects are deemed to be closer and vice versa
the object casting the shadow will be seen as further away than the object on which the shadow is cast
C. MOTION PERCEPTION
> basic assum
PROLOGUE Q/A + notes
Answers from online tests for Prologue from website:
The scientific study of behavior without reference to mental processes
was of special interest to Skinner.
Edward Titchener was concerned primarily with the study of Sensory
February 11, 2014
Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Some states occur spontaneously (daydreaming, drowsiness, dreaming)
Some are physic-logically induced (hallucinations, orgasm, food or oxygen
Some are psycho-lo
PSY 1101 - INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY:
The goals of this course are to provide an overview of the vast field of psychology
and to illustrate the scientific methods used to study behaviour.
Organization of the course
Chapter 2 Q/A + notes
A neuron is best described as Cell
Natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control are
Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will thereby increase the
concentration of serotonin molecules in the s
Chapter 7 Notes
Through direct experience with animals, we come to anticipate that dogs will
bark and that birds will chirp. This best illustrates Associative Learning.
John B. Watson believed that psychology should be. the science of
INTRODUCTION: NAISSANCE DE LA VRAIE DFINITION DE LA PSYCHOLOGIE
Psychologie contemporaine: la science du comportement et des processus mentaux.
- Comportements reprsentent tout nos agissements (observer et enregistrer).
Processus mentaux sont les exprienc
Chapter 2: The Biology of Mind
Localized Function: different parts of the brain have different functions
Sodium Potassium pump allows communication
Action-Potential: brief electrical signal that is fired down the axon of the neuron
Chapter 3: Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind
Two Track Mind
Consciousness: our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Cognitive Neuroscience: interdisciplinary study of the brain (physical) and cognition (mental)
Dual Processing: information can
Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception Part 1
Sensation: process of receiving information from stimulus
Perception: process of interpreting the sensation
Bottom-Up Processing: sensation is absorbed from senses to higher levels of brain
Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science
Psychology provides science for human behaviour (instead of intuition)
o Hindsight bias: the underestimation of effort needed to get an answer if answer is
o Overconfidence: the exagg
o Nature vs. Nurture
o Natural Selection
Levels of Approach:
o Neuroscience: how the brain and body cause/ allow emotions/memories/senses
o Evolutionary: how natural selection impacts behavioural chara
Chapter 6 Q/A +notes
The local fire department sounds the 12 o'clock whistle. The process by
which your ears transform the sound waves from the siren into neural
impulses is an example of transduction.
A subliminal message is one that is presented below o
Chapter 6: Sense and Perception Part 2
Sound moves through the ear and is processed by the brain
o Pinna Auditory canal Eardrum Hammer Anvil Stirrup Oval window
Cochlea Fluid Basilar Membrane Hair cells Auditory nerve Temporal lobe
Chapter 7: Learning
Behaviourism: ideology that psychology should be 1) objective and 2) exclusive of mental
o Supported by John B. Watson
o Pavlovs experiments laid foundation for theories
o Linking of stimuli leads to ant
Chapter 13: Emotion
Emotions are a complex psychological state
They accompany emotion
What comes first?
Theories of emotion
Chapter 8: Learning
In psychology, the definition of learning is very extensive. Its not just about science/math/English, but who you are
today (how shy/confident) is a result of learning.
Learning is a process that going to lead to either the acquisition
Consciousness: our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
While our unconsciousness process information parallel (all at once), our consciousness is slower, and process
information in sequence (serially). If we flick ou
Two major sections:
AA: The Nervous system
BB: The Endocrine system
Everything psychological is physiological, how we think, feel and behave is determined by the
We connect to the physical world through our senses. Without the physical world, we will have no psychological
Sensation: the process by which our senses are going to connect and receive information from the phys
Perception is your brain selecting the information, organization,
interpretation of the information transduced from the senses.
Top-down processing: You use the brains knowledge, experience, memory and
assumption to interpret the incom
Human beings tend to say theyve already know whats going to happen
after an event has occurred.
After an event has happened, people tend to find the cause of the even to
Motivation: Chapter Overview
Some strong human drives we will
Work motivation and organizational
What is Motivation?
Action Potential: a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): a technique that uses magnetic fields and
radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. MRI
Acquisition: in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral
stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins
triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strength
Addiction: compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences.
Latent Content: according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as
distinct from its manifest content).
Alpha Waves: the relatively slow brain waves of
Applied Research: scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.
Humanistic Psychology: historically significant perspective that emphasized the
growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal
Relative Deprivation: the perception that one is worse off relative to those with
whom one compares oneself.
Catharsis: emotional release. In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains
that "releasing" aggressive energy (through