Identify 3 factors controlling the initiation step of transcription of prokaryotes?
2. What are the differences between positive and negative controls of
3. Define the term operon and illustrate key components.
1. Explain why the reaction of DNA synthesis is favorable on basis of energy.
We use the model of replication (a figure of the template strand for the reaction of
Note that extension only occurs from the 3 end of the
DNA structure and the Central Dogma
1860s: Discovery of discrete units of inheritance
1880s: Discovery of Chromosomes
1903: Discovery of homologous chromosomes
1909-1911: Discovery of crossing over
1911: Discovery that genes cou
DNA replication is semi-conserved, meaning that during replication each of the two old DNA
strands serve as a template for the formation of a complete new strand. In each daughter cell,
one DNA strand corresponds to one of the DNA strand o
1. Compare the DNA mutations induced by environmental factors including: chemicals,
radiation and water.
2. How do tautomeric forms of the bases cause mutations in DNA?
3. Briefly describe the 3 main mechanisms of DNA repair.
4. Explain the repair mechani
Things that I dont get
Gene conversion progeny
Why is recombination necessary and important?
A. Essential for generating genetic diversity
B. Essential for maintaining genome integrity
C. To restart replication forks blocked by DNA break
There are a variety of inherited syndromes associated with DNA repair effects
The phenotypes are named, for example BRCA-2 which is a defect in repair by
Maintaining genetic stability requires both an extremely accurat
Microbial Interactions with
Humans: Establishing Infection &
Symbiotic Relationships Between
Microbes and Their Hosts
Symbiosis means to live together
We have symbiotic relationships with
FINAL EXAM 2014
Cumulative more focus on new material
since Midterm II (60/40)
Multiple Choice Questions
Short Answer Questions
HIV (genome, replication), Ebola
Bacterial Pathogenesis (Virulence factors
of Neisseriae, Streptococc
1. A plasmid is
A) A molecule of RNA found in bacterial cells.
B) Distinguished from a chromosome by being circular.
C) A structure in bacterial cells formed from plasma membrane.
D) Extrachromosomal DNA.
2. Most oxidation reactions in bacteria involve th
Cell Structure and Function Personal Questions
1. What is the size range for prokaryotes?
2. What is so special about the thiomargarita prokaryote and why does it have so many
copies of DNA?
3. What are the advantages to being a small cell?
4. What are so