o Idealized model of change
o Recognizes that pidgins and creoles are part of a developmental continuum
o Stage 1: jargon (pre-pidgin)
Characterized as linguistically and socially unstable
Vocab around 300 words
Course Hero Inc. - Weekly Report of Work Accomplished
Course Pack 1 (Course Code):
File 1.1 Title
Age and Language
File 1.2 Title
Bad grammar/ what is it?
File 1.3 Title
File 1.4 Title
Debunking some myths on Bilinguals
File 1.5 Title
In pidgin/creole formation, the lexifier language refers to the superstrate language, which
contributes the bulk of the lexical material.
The substrate language contributes the bulk of the grammatical material.
Ex. In Jamaican, the bulk of the v
Types of code-switching
As many as 97% of switches in the Puerto Rican community were smooth
o Sentences containing switches turned out to be grammatical
according to English/Spanish monolingual norms
Type 1: Tag-switching
o Insertion of a ta
The vernacular speech used spontaneously when the speaker is not engaged in
Not paying attention to what youre saying
Optimal source for studying the speech patterns were interested in
Style first acquired in pre-adolescence
Language Shift and Language Death
What is code-switching?
A change or switch between two different languages or varieties of the same language
The juxtaposition of multiword extracts from one language into the grammar of
Tagalog is an Au
PIDGINS AND CREOLES
What are they?
o Arise as a result of contact between different existing languages
Pidgin ! conventionally has no native speakers
o Arises in multilingual settings where groups of people require a common
Language maintenance and ethnolinguisitic vitality
Patterns of language use
o More domains or social contexts in which a language is used, the more it is
likely to be maintained
o The more people who speak the language, the more like
Language, Dialect, Varieties, and Variation
What kinds of questions might a sociolinguist be interested in asking?
Correlations between race?
How is language used by people to show their identity?
Why are sociolinguists so interested in looking at age d
Macro social factors promoting language contact
Social and historical factors have played a key role in bringing languages together in
the first place
Conquest and immigration are two major social processes that have given rise to
o Military con
o Studying the change from a date in the past to present day language in real
minimally requires a comparison of one stage of a language with an
o Change shows up as either a qualitative or quantitative difference betw
Sociohistorical Linguistics and Language Change
What type of change is an age-graded change?
Usually restricted to a specific point in the lifespan
Drop out of usage as people go up
Repeats itself cyclically in successive generations
What is a standard language?
Particular variety of a language which is promoted as the variety to be learnt in
schools, used in writing, etc.
School is the primary social vector for the spread of the ideology of standard language
Key features are that
What is a Sprachbund?
A linguistic diffusion area
Intense contact scenarios
Areas where syntax is transferred from one area to another
How would you define linguistic convergence?
The accomplishment of structural similarities between two or more langu
The linguistic variable
Variable alternative way of saying the same thing
Can be found at all levels of grammar in a language
o Vocabulary (lexical) truck, boot, etc
o Phonological (sound system) g-dropping: walki/n/ (alveolar nasal), traini/
Most liable level of language; is replenished regularly
New words enter the language (regularly linked to technological change)
Other lexical items fall out of usage
Meaning of words can change