22—1
LECTURE 22: FM MODULATION AND THE PHASE LOCKED LOOP
In Lecture 4 we mentioned that a variation of a) in:
v=Acos(mt=qa) (1)
resulted in frequency modulation of v. We now study frequency
modulation (FM) in terms of the Fourier components in the frequen

20*1
LECTURE 20: AMPLITUDE MODULATION AND THE TRANSCONDUCTANCE
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
Modulation
A signal which consists of a pure sine wave can carry no
information, since its amplitude, frequency or phase never change. To
encode information on a sine wav

LECTURE 19: FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS
The field. effect transistor, FET, is an extremely high input
impedance device. It is often a low—noise device. There are two types
of FET's. The JFET, or Junction FET, involves a gate electrode
separated from the othe

LECTURE 18: SOME TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS AND THEIR ANALYSIS
This lecture c0vers equivalent circuits for transistors. In
addition, several particularly useful transistor circuits will be
discussed. The material is covered in more detail and somewhat
differentl

LECTURE 17: P-N JUNCTIONS, A SLIGHTLY CLOSER LOOK
These next few pages are an attempt to go somewhat beyond the
material of the first quarter without taking the time to do
everything. A better treatment can be obtained from deWaard and
Lazarus, "Modern El

15—1
LECTURE 15: TRANSISTORS
The transistor is a very useful device. Integrated circuits are
simply arrays of transistors, resistors and capacitors on a single
silicon chip. When we want more currentwhandling capability than is
possible with an integrated

LECTURE 14: ACTIVE FILTERS
There are many occasions when good research demands a frequency—
selective filter. They can be made in three general types:
Filter
Low Pass Doesn‘t affect sine waves with m < mL.
Severely attenuates sine waves with m > mL.
High

13~1
LECTURE 13: SINE WAVE POWER, FOURIER ANALYSIS,
SINE WAVE GENERATORS
Sine Wave Power
The instantaneous power dissipated by an electrical_system has
been shown to be IV. Suppose we have a voltage given by V0510“ across a
complex impedance 2.320635. The

|_:
C)
l
'_l
LECTURE 1D: INDUCTORS AND CAPACITORS, RISE TIMES, MULTIVIBRATORS
There are two ways to approach the problem of the relationship
between currents and voltages when there are inductors and capacitors
in a circuit. The first is to write down dif

LECTURE 11: COMPLEX IMPEDANCES
Resistance is one kind of impedance. Of course, with a resistor
the relationship of voltage to current is given by:
V = Hi
This is such a useful relationship that we wish to generalize it to
any sort of passive network. The

8-1
LECTURE 8: SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES, POWER SUPPLIES
The current through a semiconductor diode and the voltage across
it are often said to be related by the following equation:
1=Io[e”"’”—1] (1)
where e is the electron charge, k is Boltzmann‘s constant and

LECTURE 7: FLIP FLOPS, COUNTlNG CIRCUITS AND SHIFT REGISTERS
In the previous chapter we introduced the R-S flip—flop. In this
section we will start building on that basis, and will introduce
several multistate devices whose outputs depend on past history.

2-1
LECTURE 2: DIFFERENTIAL CIRCUIT PARAMETERS, INPUT AND OUTPUT
RESISTANCE, THEVENIN‘S THEOREM
Output Resistance
So far we have treated a battery as a pure emf, i.e., the voltage
is constant, independent of the current drawn. In fact, it is often
the cas

5H1
LECTURE 5: OP AMPS -VOLTAGE COMPARATOR & SCHMITT TRIGGER
Voltage Comparator
Thus far, our circuits have been useful only if the output
remained unsaturated. The voltage comparator is a device which uses no
feedback; saturation is the desired result. I

LECTURE 1: OHM'S LAW
To succeed in electronics you must have a good understanding of,
even a good feeling for, the concept of voltage or potential
difference. Remember, the dimensions of voltage are joules/coulomb;
voltage at a point is a measure of the p

PHYS3610/6610 Electronics I
Final
Thursday December 10th
1) The behavior of the transistor used the circuit shown on the left of the figure is
described by the characteristic curves on the right of the figure. We have V B=5V ,
V CC =10V , R B=220k and R

1.
What is the function of the following circuit?
What is good about this circuit? What is bad? What functions would you add to improve the
circuit?
2.
When creating a D-Latch, why would a capacitor NOT want to be used for storing
charge/signals? What is