Lecture 15 Questions
1. What is the difference between chemical and mechanical weathering. Give two examples of
2. Which of the following scenarios would likely lead to fastest weathering?
Shallow vegetated slope around Peterborough, Ont
Lecture 16: The Water Cycle- Hydrology and Streams
1. There are three stages of the hydrologic cycle pictured below. Label each with the correct
stage in the cycle and explain whats happening at that stage.
2. What happens to most of the water that falls
Lecture 21 Climate Models Questions and Answers
1. What are the inputs and outputs of Earth`s Energy balance?
2. What can act as nuclei for cloud formation (more than one correct answer is possible).
a) Ionized atoms
b) Carbon dioxide
Geo 1111 Mineral Deposits Review Questions
What is acid mine drainage?
a) leaching of native elements from mine tailings using strong acids
b) application of strong acids in mining to
LECTURE 12: Economic Geology
and Mineral Resources
Metals were first used when?
Atoms of metals such as nickel,
cobalt and copper.
Most ore minerals of the scarce
metals are found as
Ore zone formation steps
How do minerals become
Climate I Answers
1) Which of the following is NOT associated with the changing of the Earths
a. Increase in greenhouse gas concentration
b. Milankovitch cycles
c. Decrease in greenhouse gas concentration
Lecture 19 Questions: Oceans
1. Wind waves are classified as having a:
a) High frequency and long period
b) High frequency and short period
c) Low frequency and long period
d) Low frequency and short period
April 6, 2016
A few definitions
Weather: state of the atmosphere at a given time and place - instantaneous, weather = f(temp,
air pressure, humidity, cloud over, wind speed and direction)
Climate: average weather - long term, i.e >
Ocean tides and currents
April 4, 2016
What are tides
Tides are waves
What causes tides?
Tides: periodic rise and fall of the ocean
Ocean tides - gravitational attraction of moon and sun
Fg -> 1/km2
Moon tides = 2x su
April 11, 2016
Models of climate change
Components of the climate system
2 Hydrosphere and cryosphere
The radiative energy mass balance
The key input
The key output
GEO1111- Ground Water
Base Flow and Channel Formation
Base level is the lowest level to which erosion by water can take place
It is higher up in the stream and them gets lower.
Groundwater is a major economic resource
Percentage of population reliant on g
Lecture 3 Jan 18/15
Atmosphere is a natural system. Thermodynamically open system, meaning that mass
and energy flow into and out of the system. Not isolated entities considered in junction
with their surroundings. Internall
Models of Climate Change
Components of the climate system
2. Hydrosphere and cryosphere
The Radiative Energy Mass Balance
The Key Input
Solar Energy, radioactive decay in the earth
The Key Output
Geo1111- Lecture 15
Niagara Escarpment: rocks on top less prone to weathering. Rocks underneath easier to
weather :ex mudstone and shale stone.
It is on the edge of Michigan, the edges have a lot of limestone and the escarpment is along the
edge. The edge
GEO1111- Lecture 18
March 30. 2016
Oceans: 97% of Earths water
Seawater covers 71% of Earths surface, in three huge interconnected basins
1) Pacific Ocean
2) Atlantic Ocean
3) Indian ocean
Why are oceans important?
Support sea life
Source of natu
April 6, 2016
Last lecture review
How does garbage accumulate into clumps on the ocean surface?
Ekman Spirals produce eddies )(circular flows of water and bigger eddies (gyers) that move as a
mass of water on the ocean.
Lecture 9- Feb 10/2016
How is heat energy transmitted inside the earth? The earth is hot and heat wants to get out
Conduction; heat energy transmitted through solid by molecular vibrations.
Convection; heat energy transmitted by density-driven f
GEO1111 Lecture 13
Energy for Canada
Three Types of Energy
Nuclear nucleus decays /splits / fuses
o using a nuclear reactor to produce heat and steam for electricity generation
o Radioactive decay heats the earths core
o Fusion of light nuclei in the su
GEO1111: Lecture 1
What are Earth Systems?
A system is composed of a bunch of components that interact and
work together. If one component is altered or changed, the whole
system must be adjusted to account for this disequilibrium. If the Earth
GEO 1111- Lecture 12
Economic Geology and Mineral Rescources
In the next ten years, Canadas mineral resources industry will require up to 80,000 new
25 to 40% of current workers plan to retire within 10 years
Student enrolment in geolo
Lecture 4- Jan 20/2015
Olbers Paradox- why is the night star black? If the universe were infinitely large, the
infinite number of stars it contained should fill up all voids, making the night sky very
o There were dark clo
GEO1111- LECTURE 5
How do you get this? prison spit light coming from the star and then observe darks lines
are different elements and they are there because light doesnt absorb thro them.
Chondrites and acho
GEO1111- Lecture 10
Minerals are primary building blocks of most rocks
What is a mineral?
Naturally occurring substance
Ordered atomic arrangement (i.e., crystalline)
Specific (fixed) chemical composition (chemical formula)
Inorganic (no CH bon
GEO1111 Lecture 17
All frozen water on earth. Includes glaciers the main component of the cryosphere, in
addition to sea ice, lake and river ice permafrost and seasonal snow cover.
The present volume of ice on earth accounts for about 2% of w
GEO1111- Lecture 19
How to calculate wave speed?
Velocity = Distance / Time
Wavelength = distance between two peaks or troughs (e.g. 10 meter)
If the Frequency is 4 Hz (ie 4 waves per second) what is the wave velocity?
What are Tides.
Tides are Waves
Lecture 2- JAN 13/15
The Earth as a System
One way of attempting to explain natural phenomena like the earth is to employ a
Scientific reductionism attempts to boil things down to their essence by developing
GEO1111- Lecture 8
Feb 3, 2016
The Earths Interior (continued)
It was found that the seismic waves generated by the earthquakes could be measured by using
sensitive pendulums (now
Pendulum stays put and
ground moves. Surface
GEO1111- Lecture 7
The Geological time scale
The way the numbers are fractions in a billion years and they are based on radiometric
dating. Radio active elements to date events of history
Radio active parent
GEO111- Lecture 11
Feb 24/ 2016
Ignerous rocks: forms from cooling magma or lava
Magma : Hot, liquid rock with crystals, fragments of rock, and gas that exists below the Earths
Lava: Hot liquid rock with crystals, fragments of rock,