M.No. 4.2
De BROGLIE WAVES & UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE
4.2.1: Introduction
The theory that radiation travels in space in the form of waves got established
as it successfully explained the optical phenomena like reflection, refraction,
interference, diffractio
M.No. 4.1:
FAILURE OF CLASSICAL PHYSICS
DEVELOPMENT OF QUANTUM THEORY
4.1.1: LIMITATIONS OF CLASSICAL PHYSICS
According to the theory put forward by Sir Isaac Newton, light consists of tiny
and perfectly elastic particles, called corpuscles which travel
M.No. 5.2
Crystallography - II
5.2.1 Miller Indices
The concept of Miller indices will enable us to identify and name the
positions, directions and planes in a crystal and there by help us to
understand and describe the crystal geometry. Miller indices ar
M.No: 4.8
Free Particle (Zero potential)
4.8.1: INTRODUCTION
The simplest time-independent Schrodinger equation is one for the case
V(x) = constant. A particle moving under the influence of such a potential is a
free particle since the force acting on it
M.No: 4.9
SQUARE POTENTIAL BARRIER
Let us define the potential V(x) as
0
V(x) =
x<0
V0
0<x<a
0
.
(1)
x>0
This potential function is shown in Fig-1 and it allows exact solution for the
equation of motion.
Now let us consider a stream of particles of mass m
M. No. 5.1
Crystallography-I
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION
Solid state physics deals with the properties of solids that is the nature of the
bonding for the formation of solids, its internal structure of atoms, band structure,
thermal, electrical, dielectric, magnet
M.No. 4.7
SQUARE-WELL POTENTIAL WITH FINITE WALLS
Consider a particle of mass m moving inside a potential well with finite barriers of
height V0 as shown in Fig:1below.
V0
V ( x) 0
V
0
x a
a x a
xa
- (1)
The wave equation and its solution in region 2 are
M .No. 4.6
PARTICL IN A BOX (POTENTIAL WELL OF INFINITE DEPTH)
The problem of finding the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonian
(energy operator) is very important since they play a very crucial role in the
understanding of atomic, mole
M.No. 4.4
OPERATORS, EXPECTATION VALUES & TIME
INDEPENDENT SCHRODINGER EQUATION
4.4.1:
OPERATORS:
The energy (E) of a physical system is given by E
P2
V T V -(1)
2m
where T is the Kinetic energy and V the potential energy. In mechanics we write
the corr
M.No. 4.5
Solution for a generalized potential
4.5.1 MOTION OF A PARTICLE IN POTENTIAL CLASSICAL VIEW:
Let us consider an arbitrary potential as shown in Fig.1 below and look into the
classical mechanics about the motion of a particle of mass m in the pot
M.No. 4.3
Wave
Function,
Schrodinger
Equation
&
Probability
interpretation
4.3.1: TIME-DEPENDENT SCHRODINGER EQUATION
The nature of the wave function (x, t) for localized and non localized free particles
have been discussed in the previous section. Howeve
M.No:3.11
Theory of lasers
INTRODUCTION
While studying the phenomenon of interference of light, we have defined a term
coherence
between two sources of light.
The two sources are said to be
coherent, when they vibrate in the same phase or there is a const
M.No: 3.8
POLARIZATION: PRODUCTION OF PLANE POLARISED
LIGHT, DOUBLE REFRACTION
INTRODUCTION
Wave nature of light was established on the basis of phenomenon of interference
and diffraction, but
not the character of
wave motion, i.e., whether it is
longitud
M.No:3.12
Different Kinds of Lasers
RUBY LASER
Let us consider the case of an actual laser known as Ruby laser. It uses a
crystalline substance of the active material. The difference parts are shown in
Fig.(1).
Figure 1: Parts of Ruby Laser
The three main
M.No: 3.10
Production & detection of elliptical and
Circularly polarised lights
INTRODUCTION
In our earlier class we have defined what is Plane Polarized Light (PPL) as the
light which has vibrations in a single plane. It can be produced using a Nicol pri
M.No: 3.9
Quarter and Half wave plates, Elliptically and
Circularly polarised lights
HUYGENS THEORY OF DOUBLE REFRACTION
According to Huygens theory each point on a wavefront acts as a fresh source of
disturbance and sends secondary wavelets. The envelope
M.No 3.4
FRAUNHOFER DIFFRACTION (SINGLE SLIT)
INTRODUCTION
Consider a plane wave incident on a long narrow slit of width b (see Fig.1).
According to geometrical optics one expects the region AB of the screen SS to be
illuminated and the remaining portion,
M. No: 3.7
FRESNEL DIFFRACTION and ZONE PLATE
TYPE OF DIFFRACTION
The phenomenon of diffraction can be broadly classified under two categories.The
first category is the Fresnel class of diffraction in which either the source or the
screen (or both) are at
M.No: 3.5
FRAUNHOFER DIFFRACTION DOUBLE AND
MULTIPLE SLITS
DOUBLE -SLIT FRAUNHOFER DIFFRACTION PATTERN
In previous module we studied the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern produced by one
slit of width b and had found that the intensity distribution consisted
M.No: 3.6
DIFFRACTION GRATING AND RESOLVING POWER
DIFFRACTON GRATING
In the previous module we have discussed the diffraction pattern produced by a
system of parallel equidistant slits. An arrangement which essentially consists of a
large number of equidi
M.No. 1.1
VECTOR DFFERENTIAL OPERATOR
(Gradient, Del and Curl operators & significance)
In the study of Physics many a times we come across physical quantities
which are either scalar or vector quantities. In order to understand the
vector operators one m
M.No: 1.3
TYPES OF COORDINATE SYSTEMS
1.3.1:
Introduction
Up until now our discussion has been restricted to the use of Cartesian
coordinates defined by coordinate axes x, y and z. Very often the symmetry
of the problem suggests the use of a different set
M.No.1.2
Vector Integral Theorems
INTRODUCTION
In this module we will discuss, two vector integral theorems namely (i) Gauss
divergence theorem and (ii) Stokes theorem, which have important
applications in physical and engineering problems. For example, i