Summary 1
When the population standard deviation is unknown and the population is normal, the test
statistic for testing hypotheses about is
When is unknown, the Confidence Interval Estimator of is
Checking the Required Conditions:
The t-statistic is a st

Summary 1
A random experiment is an action or process that leads to one of the several possible
outcomes.
The first step in assigning probabilities is to produce a list of outcomes. The listed outcomes
can be exhaustive which includes all possible outcome

Summary 1
The purpose of making an inference about a population through hypothesis testing is to
determine whether enough statistical evidence exists to enable us to conclude that a belief
about a parameter is supported by the data. There are actually two

Summary 1
A sampling distribution is created by sampling. It can be created in two ways:
By drawing samples of the same size, calculating the statistic of interest and using a
descriptive technique.
Through rules of probability and the laws of expected

Summary 1
Statistical inference is the process by which we acquire information and draw conclusions
about populations from samples. There are two procedures for making inferences about
population estimation and hypothesis testing.
The objective of estimat

Summary 1
Data are the observed values of a variable. That is, we define a variable or variables that are
of interest to us and then proceed to collect observations of those variables.
Methods of collecting data:Direct Observation: The simplest method of

Summary 1
When a histogram is created, we look for the location of the center of the data and the spread
of data. The spread will be measured by measures of variability.
A Parameter is a descriptive measurement about a population, and a statistic is a des

Chapter Summary 1
Statistics, in short, is the study of data. It is concerned with the collection, analysis and
presentation of data to derive information. It includes descriptive statistics and inferential
statistics. Descriptive statistics is concerned

Chapter Summary 1
A variable is some characteristic of a population or sample. The values of the variable are
the possible observations of the variable. Data are the observed values of a variable. The data
when processed gives information. Data can be of

Summary 1
A random variable is a function or rule that assigns a number to each outcome of an
experiment. There are two types of random variables:A discrete random variable takes on a countable number of values.
A continuous random variable is one whose v