2. HUME'S DENIAL OF SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS 15
3. MILL ON SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS 17
4. SPENCER'S DENIAL OF IMMEDIATE SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS. 18
5. THE CONTINUITY OF SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS 19
6. TWO FORMS OF SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS 19
7. ORIGIN OF REFLECTIVE SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS.
6. SOMNAMBULISM 333
7. LANGUAGE 334
8. THE ACQUISITION OF LANGUAGE 336
9. HABIT AND EDUCATION 337
DIVISION OF THE SUBJECT.
The musk rose and the well-attired woodbine, (Fancy, vulgar)
With cowslips wan, that hang the pensive head, (Imagination)
And every flower that sad embroidery wears." (Mixed) "
3. The Character of Imaginative Activity.
Imaginative activityis purely psychi
George Stephenson, and every element of it was evolved through a
process of Imagination,before the first actual locomotive appeared
before the eyes of men. So also the steam-boat existed in the mind
of Robert Fulton and the telephonein that of Thomas A. E
9, The Relation of Phantasy to Education,
References : (1)Clarke's Visions, p. 212. (2)De Quincey'sCsionofnes,sp.
109. (3) G-alton's Inquiry into Human Faculty, pp. 84, 86.
(4) Lewes' Problems of Life and Mind, Third Series, pp. 55, 56.
(5) Goethe's Autob
1. THE DOUBLE CHARACTER OF SENSE-PERCEPTION 44
2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SENSES 44
(1.)The Order of Development.
(2.)The Mode of Development.
3. TWO CLASSES OF SENSE-PERCEPTIONS 47
4. ACQUIRED SENSE-PERCEPTIONS 47
as self-contradictions are not introduced. Out of this " *cZea,"which
is so void of positivecontent that it can be identified with non-being,
he manages by logicaljuggleryto evolve the universe ! This is the
great vice of Metaphysics," the treatment of ab
3. THE PRIMARY LAWS OF ASSOCIATION 72
(1.)The Law of Resemblance.
(2.)The Law of Contiguity.
(3.)The Law of Contrast,
4. THE SECONDARY LAWS OF ASSOCIATION 74
(1.)The Law of Intensity.
(2.)The Law of Repetition.
5. THE LAWS OF ASSOCIATION
on its subjectiveside,is a revival of the idea depositedthere. Thus
our whole mental life is the result of a succession of such nervous
dischargesin the brain. The order and connection of our ideas dpe-nd
entirelyupon the order in which these cells are di
both the reproductionof what is learned and the increase
of intellectual power. The dull and listless mind needs
to be stirred and inspired, and the power of inspiration is,
therefore,an essential qualityin a good teacher. Esinathsmuis
accepted definition of totemism; but I am convinced that in this
form the phenomenon is not a single psychologicalproblem,
but embraces the most diverse psychologicalelements. In
some cases the people believe themselves to be descendants of
the animal who
3. Inductive Reasoning-.
Induction is the inference of a conclusion by gzaenteioranlifrom
particularfacts. The conclusion is a suanilverjudgment.
The great problem m the discussion of
ELABORATIVE KNOWLEDGE. 163
inductive reasoningis to show how we can pas
effect of perspectivein painting is illusoryf,or while it
representsdepth it is on a plane surface. Ghost-seeingis
often nothing more than the interpretationof some
ghostlysign,for example a white garment, as indicating
the presence of a spiritual visitor
past. The halo of pastness is gone. James quotes
Spencer "To ask a man whether he remembers that the
sun shines,that fireburns, that iron is hard, would be a
misuse of language. Even the almost fortuitous cneocn-tions
among our experiencescease to be clas
whose centre is v, then va, vb, vc, will be at the same time unequal
in magnitude and in different directions. If we designatethe sum
of all these movements by S, this sum is for each pointof the retina
an unchangeable and definite combination, and so we
to balance the account of thought and thing,that is,to
distinguishpsychicalfrom physical,is concerned with
the problem of ultimate reality,not with the etixoplnanaand
descriptionof observed facts,and is therefore
metaphysical,not scientificin character."
lower types of moments. What the moment reproduces
is altogetherdifferent in nature and content from what
has been experienced,or directlypresented. What is
presentedis sensory material,what is reproduced is aigm-ery,
ideal "stuff." Imagery, ideal stuff a
may aid him by callinginto exercise his power of recolREPRESENTATIVE
lection. The student must recite what he has learned,
that is,give an account of his acquisition.However
urgent reluctant learners may be in advocating other
distraction involved in takingnotes. When we are writing
notes something is bound to be missed and we fail to
grasp the structure of the lecture as a whole. At the other
extreme there is the policyof attemptingto secure a
verbatim record. This is,in gener
on the common concept of murder.
Similar observations may alisobe made in the domain of art.
The artbt who tries to displayhis skill in handlinghis material
will be led to aesthetic results. Another one, who wishes to
imitate certain forms in his work, ma
all the great picturesare productsof Imagination,but of this faculty
as pursuing and realizingthe deepest truth, for the deepesttruth is
truth of principle,not of particularfact. In this clearer light,ctaeir-n
works of fiction may be highly valued for the
REPRESENTATIVE KNOWLEDGE. 69
not actuallyreproduce."* When we look directlyat an object,we
have an immediate knowledge of it,but carry away an
" idea " of it.
However much abused in common speech, the word "idea" ction-ues
to be our best Englishword for r
3. LIBERTY AND NECESSITY 361
(1.)The Theoryof Liberty.
(3.)The Theoryof Necessity
xxiv ' ANALYSIS.
VOLITION AND EDUCATION 364
(1.) The Presentation of Motives.
(2.) The Sphere of Freedom.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF WILL.
SUMMARY OF RESULTS
gets enlarged the further situated it is in the psirognresof
the series. Each state inherits only the cmaodtifoin-s
accumulated by the precedingones, but it does
not inherit the cognitionor recognitionof the state
In this respect the series of sta
4. HABITUAL FEELING 306
5. HABITUAL EXPRESSION 307
6. THE INHERITANCE OF FEELINGS 308
PART III" WILL.
1. DEFINITION OF WILL 309
2. THE STUDY OF WILL PSYCHOLOGICAL 310
3. TWO MODES OF ACTION 310
DIVISION OF THE SUBJECT.
properties; and cfw_c)that an idea is a psychicalproduct,
utterlyinconceivable except as the state of a conscious
being that at once possesses and producesit. The facts
are more easilyharmonized if we suppose that similar
ideas occur together,because the
own results by borrowing from other sources. Its claim to being
an independent science must stand or fall with its abilityto vindicate
its power of adducing facts not otherwise observable. This seems
easy, for no method of external investigationcan discov
attempt at solving metaphysical difficulties. It has been held by
the Scotch philosophersgenerallyfrom the time of Thomas Reid to
that of James McCosh (1811- ),an American contemporary reps-entative
of the school. It has the advantage of adherence to