CHAPTER 55 - CONSERVATION BIOLOGY
Conservation biology is a goal-oriented science that seeks to counter the biodiversity crisis, the current rapid decrease in Earths variety of life.
A. The Biodiversity Crisis Extinction is a natural phenomen
CHAPTER 54 - ECOSYSTEMS Introduction An ecosystem consists of all the organisms living in a community as well as all the abiotic factors with which they interact. The dynamics of an ecosystem involve two processes: energy flow and chemical cycling.
CHAPTER 53 - COMMUNITY ECOLOGY Introduction
A community is defined as an assemblage of species living close enough together for potential interaction.
A. What Is a Community?
Communities differ in their species richness, the number of species they contain
CHAPTER 51 - BEHAVIORAL BIOLOGY A. Introduction to Behavior and Behavioral Ecology 1. What is Behavior?
Behavior is what an animal does and how it does it.
2. Behavioral has both proximate and ultimate causes
Proximate questions are mechanistic, concern
CHAPTER 50 - AN INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY AND THE BIOSPERE Introduction
Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environment.
A. The Scope of Ecology 1. The interactions between organisms and their environments determi
CHAPTER 25 - PHYLOGENY AND SYSTEMATICS Introduction Evolutionary biology is about both processes (e.g., natural selection and speciation) and history. A major goal of evolutionary biology is to reconstruct the history of life on earth. Systematics is the
CHAPTER 24 - THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES Introduction Darwin recognized that the young Galapagos Islands were a place for the genesis of new species. The central fact that crystallized this view was the many plants and animals that existed nowhere else.
CHAPTER 23 - THE EVOLUTION OF POPULATIONS
Introduction One obstacle to understanding evolution is the common misconception that organisms evolve, in a Darwinian sense, in their lifetimes. Natural selection does act on individuals by impacting their chance
CHAPTER 22 - DESCENT WITH MODIFICATION: A DARWINIAN VIEW OF LIFE Introduction On November 24, 1959, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Darwins book drew a cohesive picture of life by connecting what had once s
CHAPTER 17 - FROM GENE TO PROTEIN
Introduction The information content of DNA is in the form of specific sequences of nucleotides along the DNA strands. The DNA inherited by an organism leads to specific traits by dictating the synthesis of proteins. Prot
CHAPTER 16 - THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF INHERITANCE Introduction In April 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick shook the scientific world with an elegant double-helical model for the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA. Your genetic endowment is the DNA
CHAPTER 15 - THE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE Introduction It was not until 1900 that biology finally caught up with Gregor Mendel. Independently, Karl Correns, Erich von Tschermak, and Hugo de Vries all found that Mendel had explained the same result
CHAPTER 14 - MENDEL AND THE GENE IDEA
Introduction Every day we observe heritable variations (eyes of brown, green, blue, or gray) among individuals in a population. These traits are transmitted from parents to offspring. One mechanism for this transmissi
CHAPTER 13 - MEIOSIS AND SEXUAL LIFE CYCLES Introduction Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind. Offspring resemble their parents more than they do less closely related individuals of the same species. The transmis
CHAPTER 12 - THE CELL CYCLE Introduction The ability of organisms to reproduce their kind is one characteristic that best distinguishes living things from nonliving matter. The continuity of life from one cell to another is based on the reproduction of ce
CHAPTER 11 - CELL COMMUNICATION Introduction Cell-to-cell communication is absolutely essential for multicellular organisms. Cells must communicate to coordinate their activities. Communication between cells is also important for many unicellular organism
CHAPTER 10 - PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Introduction Life on Earth is solar powered. The chloroplasts of plants use a process called photosynthesis to capture light energy from the sun and convert it to chemical energy stored in sugars and other organic molecules.
CHAPTER 9 - CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY
Introduction Living is work. To perform their many tasks, cells require transfusions of energy from outside sources. In most ecosystems, energy enters as sunlight. Light energy trapped in organi
CHAPTER 8: MEMBRANE STUCTURE AND FUNCTION Introduction The plasma membrane separates the living cell from its nonliving surroundings. This thin barrier, 8 nm thick, controls traffic into and out of the cell. Like other membranes, the plasma membrane is se
CHAPTER 7 - A TOUR OF THE CELL
A. How We Study Cells 1. Microscopes provide windows to the world of the cell The discovery and early study of cells progressed with the invention and improvement of microscopes in the 17th century. In a light microscope (LM
CHAPTER 6 - AN INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM
A. Metabolism, Energy, and Life 1. The chemistry of life is organized into metabolic pathways The totality of an organisms chemical reactions is called metabolism. A cells metabolism is an elaborate road map of th
CHAPTER 5 - THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF MACROMOLECULES Introduction Cells join smaller organic molecules together to form larger molecules. These larger molecules, macromolecules, may be composed of thousands of atoms and weigh over 100,000 daltons. The
CHAPTER 4 - CARBON AND THE MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF LIFE A. The Importance of Carbon Although cells are 70-95% water, the rest consists mostly of carbon-based compounds. Proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and other molecules that distinguish living matter from i
CHAPTER 3 - WATER AND THE FITNESS OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Introduction Because water is the substance that makes possible life as we know it on Earth, astronomers hope to find evidence of water on newly discovered planets orbiting distant stars. Life on Earth
CHAPTER 2 THE CHEMICAL CONTEXT OF LIFE
Introduction Nature is not neatly packaged into the individual life sciences. While biologists specialize in the study of life, organisms and the world they live in are natural systems to which the basic concepts of
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: TEN THEMES IN THE STUDY OF LIFE
Introduction Biology, the study of life, is rooted in the human spirit. Biology is the scientific extension of the human tendency to connect to and be curious about life. The adventure of biology tak
CHAPTER 49 - SENSORY AND MOTOR MECHANISMS A. Sensing, Acting, and Brains 1. The brains processing of sensory input and motor output is cyclical rather than linear
The way it ISNT: sensing brain analysis action. The way it is: sensing, analysis, and acti
CHAPTER 48 - NERVOUS SYSTEMS A. An Overview Of Nervous Systems 1. Nervous systems perform the three overlapping functions of sensory input, integration, and motor output
Peripheral nervous system (PNS).
Sensory receptors a responsive to external and inter
CHAPTER 47 - ANIMAL DEVELOPMENT A. The Stages of Early Embryonic Development 1. From egg to organism, an animals form develops gradually: the concept of epigenesis
Preformation: the egg or sperm contains an embryo that is a preformed miniature adult. Ep
CHAPTER 46 - ANIMAL REPRODUCTION Overview of Animal Reproduction 1. Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur in the animal kingdom
Asexual reproduction involves the formation of individuals whose genes all come from one parent. There is no fusion of s