5 Cells: The Working Units of Life
5.1 What Features Make Cells the
Fundamental Units of Life?
Cells: The Working
Units of Life
5.2 What Features Characterize
5.3 What Features Characterize
5.4 What Are the Roles of
CHEMICAL BONDING IN ORGANIC
Dr. Ferenc Erddi
What is Organic Chemistry ?
Prior to 1828, organic compounds can only be
obtained from living organism
1828, Fredrick Whler prepared urea a chemical
in urine (an organic c
ALCOHOLS and PHENOLS
Alcohols and Phenols
That is: aliphatic and aromatic compounds
containing a hydroxyl (OH) group.
R = alkyl, substance is an alcohol.
R = aryl, substance is a phenol.
R CH2 OH
Aromatic compounds II.
Heteroaromatic Compounds and
Unusual reactions of Benzene
Alkene + KMnO4 diol (addition)
Benzene + KMnO4 no reaction.
Alkene + Br2/CCl4 dibromide (addition)
Benzene + Br2/CCl4 no reaction.
With FeCl3 catalyst
Molecular shapes: VSEPR model
Valence bond theory
H b idi ti
Lewis Structures and Molecular
Geometry: VSEPR Theory
Lewis devised a system for determining chemical bonding
that involves representing each valence ele
ETHERS and THIOLS
BMC I lecture
Structure of Ethers
Functional group of an ether: an oxygen atom bonded to two carbon atoms
Formula: R-O-R, R can be the same group or different, aromatic or aliphatic.
Oxygen is sp3 hybridized, with bo
Properties of Oxygen
O2 is a colorless, tasteless, odorless gas at room
The electron configuration is [He]2s22p4, which means
the dominant oxidation state is 2-.
The O=O bond is strong (bond enthalpy 495 kJ/mol).
Density: 1.43 g/L
Classification of hydrocarbons
Dr. Ferenc Erddi
Equilibrium is a state in which there are no observable
changes as time goes by.
Chemical equilibrium is achieved when:
the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal and
the concentrations of the reactants
Liquid and Solid States
stry of water
A Molecular Comparison of Gases,
Li id and
Physical properties of substances understood in terms of
kinetic molecular theory:
Gases are highly co
ELECTRON CONFIGURATION OF NITROGEN
HYBRIDIZATION OF VALENCE ELECTRONS
BONDING AND GEOMETRY OF AMMONIA
CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BASICITY OF AMMONIA
HYDROGEN BONDING OF NH3 MOLECULES
Highly polarized N-H bonds
CARBOXYLIC ACIDS II.
UNSATURATED CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
PROPERTIES OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
REACTIONS OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
UNSATURATED CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
Unsaturated double bond in the R group
Characteristics of double bonded structures:
Amines of biological importance
Heteroaromatic (heterocyclic) amines
Heterocyclic amines are amines in which nitrogen is one of the atoms of a ring.
Why can nitrogen replace carbon?
a. similar size to carbon
b. similar electronic struc
6th week March 14-18
Aromatic compounds: the structure and properties of benzene and its
derivates (Erddi pp. 62-70).
Heteroaromatic compounds. The reactions of benzene (Erddi pp. 70-84).
Hckel-rule:that if a cyclic, planar molecule has 4n+2 electrons,
3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?
Molecules in living organisms: proteins,
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids
Most are polymers (from the Greek words (poly),
meaning "many"; and (meros), meanin
Introduction to Medical
Introduction to Medical Chemistry-Academic advisor
Department of Medical Chemistry
Location: Life Science Building
3rd floor, Rm#3.403
contact: [email protected]
Small Molecules and the
Chemistry of Life
1 000 000 ng (nanogram) = 1000 g (microgram) = 1 mg (milligram) =
0.001 g (gram) = 0.000001 kg (kilogram)
Ordinary decimal notation Scientific notation
100 = 0.1101
Cell Communication and
7 Cell Communication and Multicellularity
In prairie voles, oxytocin and
vasopressin released by brain cells
bind to other brain cells and trigger
life-long bonding and extensive care
8 Energy, Enzymes, and Metabolism
Energy, Enzymes, and
Many laundry aids have been
developed that include various
enzymes to hydrolyze proteins,
fats, and starches to remove a
variety of stains.
How are enzymes used in other
Pathways That Harvest
9 Pathways that Harvest Chemical Energy
Human infants are born with a lot of brown
fatit has many mitochondria with ironcontaining pigments. When brown fat is
catabolized, its energy is released as heat,
6 Cell Membranes
The cell membrane regulates what
enters and leaves the cytoplasm.
Some cell membranes have pores
called aquaporins that allow water to
Water purity is a worldwide problem.
Can aquaporin memb
REVIEW OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Why is organic chemistry a separate discipline
historical: scientists at one time believed that
a vital force present in living organisms was
necessary to produce an organic compound
The study of the three-dimensional structure of molecules
same molecular formula, same bonding sequence,
different spatial orientation
Enantiomers: pairs of compou
Esters and amides.
Substituted carboxylic acids.
Stereochemistry. Optical activity: properties
of enantiomers and diastereomers.
Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Properties of Esters
Esters give flowers and fruits their pleasant fragra