5 Cells: The Working Units of Life
5.1 What Features Make Cells the
Fundamental Units of Life?
Cells: The Working
Units of Life
5.2 What Features Characterize
5.3 What Features Characterize
5.4 What Are the Roles of
CARBOXYLIC ACIDS II.
UNSATURATED CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
PROPERTIES OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
REACTIONS OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
UNSATURATED CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
Unsaturated double bond in the R group
Characteristics of double bonded structures:
CHEMICAL BONDING IN ORGANIC
Dr. Ferenc Erddi
What is Organic Chemistry ?
Prior to 1828, organic compounds can only be
obtained from living organism
1828, Fredrick Whler prepared urea a chemical
in urine (an organic c
ALCOHOLS and PHENOLS
Alcohols and Phenols
That is: aliphatic and aromatic compounds
containing a hydroxyl (OH) group.
R = alkyl, substance is an alcohol.
R = aryl, substance is a phenol.
R CH2 OH
Aromatic compounds II.
Heteroaromatic Compounds and
Unusual reactions of Benzene
Alkene + KMnO4 diol (addition)
Benzene + KMnO4 no reaction.
Alkene + Br2/CCl4 dibromide (addition)
Benzene + Br2/CCl4 no reaction.
With FeCl3 catalyst
Molecular shapes: VSEPR model
Valence bond theory
H b idi ti
Lewis Structures and Molecular
Geometry: VSEPR Theory
Lewis devised a system for determining chemical bonding
that involves representing each valence ele
ETHERS and THIOLS
BMC I lecture
Structure of Ethers
Functional group of an ether: an oxygen atom bonded to two carbon atoms
Formula: R-O-R, R can be the same group or different, aromatic or aliphatic.
Oxygen is sp3 hybridized, with bo
Properties of Oxygen
O2 is a colorless, tasteless, odorless gas at room
The electron configuration is [He]2s22p4, which means
the dominant oxidation state is 2-.
The O=O bond is strong (bond enthalpy 495 kJ/mol).
Density: 1.43 g/L
Classification of hydrocarbons
Dr. Ferenc Erddi
Equilibrium is a state in which there are no observable
changes as time goes by.
Chemical equilibrium is achieved when:
the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal and
the concentrations of the reactants
Liquid and Solid States
stry of water
A Molecular Comparison of Gases,
Li id and
Physical properties of substances understood in terms of
kinetic molecular theory:
Gases are highly co
Amines of biological importance
Heteroaromatic (heterocyclic) amines
Heterocyclic amines are amines in which nitrogen is one of the atoms of a ring.
Why can nitrogen replace carbon?
a. similar size to carbon
b. similar electronic struc
6th week March 14-18
Aromatic compounds: the structure and properties of benzene and its
derivates (Erddi pp. 62-70).
Heteroaromatic compounds. The reactions of benzene (Erddi pp. 70-84).
Hckel-rule:that if a cyclic, planar molecule has 4n+2 electrons,
3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?
Molecules in living organisms: proteins,
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids
Most are polymers (from the Greek words (poly),
meaning "many"; and (meros), meanin
Introduction to Medical
Introduction to Medical Chemistry-Academic advisor
Department of Medical Chemistry
Location: Life Science Building
3rd floor, Rm#3.403
Small Molecules and the
Chemistry of Life
1 000 000 ng (nanogram) = 1000 g (microgram) = 1 mg (milligram) =
0.001 g (gram) = 0.000001 kg (kilogram)
Ordinary decimal notation Scientific notation
100 = 0.1101
Cell Communication and
7 Cell Communication and Multicellularity
In prairie voles, oxytocin and
vasopressin released by brain cells
bind to other brain cells and trigger
life-long bonding and extensive care
8 Energy, Enzymes, and Metabolism
Energy, Enzymes, and
Many laundry aids have been
developed that include various
enzymes to hydrolyze proteins,
fats, and starches to remove a
variety of stains.
How are enzymes used in other
Pathways That Harvest
9 Pathways that Harvest Chemical Energy
Human infants are born with a lot of brown
fatit has many mitochondria with ironcontaining pigments. When brown fat is
catabolized, its energy is released as heat,
6 Cell Membranes
The cell membrane regulates what
enters and leaves the cytoplasm.
Some cell membranes have pores
called aquaporins that allow water to
Water purity is a worldwide problem.
Can aquaporin memb
REVIEW OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Why is organic chemistry a separate discipline
historical: scientists at one time believed that
a vital force present in living organisms was
necessary to produce an organic compound
The study of the three-dimensional structure of molecules
same molecular formula, same bonding sequence,
different spatial orientation
Enantiomers: pairs of compou
Esters and amides.
Substituted carboxylic acids.
Stereochemistry. Optical activity: properties
of enantiomers and diastereomers.
Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Properties of Esters
Esters give flowers and fruits their pleasant fragra
ELECTRON CONFIGURATION OF NITROGEN
HYBRIDIZATION OF VALENCE ELECTRONS
BONDING AND GEOMETRY OF AMMONIA
CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BASICITY OF AMMONIA
HYDROGEN BONDING OF NH3 MOLECULES
Highly polarized N-H bonds