Unit 86: CONDITIONS
Look at this sentence: Hes coming to see us if he has time. QUESTION: Is he coming to see us? ANSWER: We dont know. Perhaps he will have time or perhaps he will not have time. If he has time is an example of a REAL CONDITION (section 1
Unit 85: SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
In the sequence I took the key out of my pocket and opened the door, it is clear which action was first and which action happened second. You do not need to write anything else to show this. But sometimes it is not clear and yo
Unit 84: OPPOSITE IDEAS
Here are some ways to connect two ideas when you want to say that they are opposite to each other.
Short statements I like fruit but I dont like meat. I like fruit. I dont like fruit drinks, though.
For longer statem
Unit 83: SIMILAR IDEAS
Here are some ways to connect noun phrases (Unit 45.3) and statements when you want to show that they are the same, or nearly the same.
1 Two noun phrases
1 Maria I like fruit Maria I dont like milk and and and or 2 John vegetables.
Unit 82: REASON & CONSEQUENCE
Here are some ways to connect two ideas when one idea is the cause (the reason why) and the other is the result (the consequence).
BASIC SENTENCE It was difficult to follow him We put on lots of clothes because because beca
Unit 81: PURPOSE & USE
Here are some ways to show why you did something, why something exists, or what its use is.
1 Purpose a
We put on lots of clothes You have to study hard NOTICE: to to to + BASE VERB keep warm. be a doctor.
We also use in order to th
Unit 80: HOW?
Here are some ways to describe: 1. 2. the style, or way, of doing something: the manner the method of doing something
We can use:
ADVERBS (Unit 64.2)
He spoke loudly. He nervously opened the letter.
PREPOSITION + NOUN PHRASE (Un
Unit 79: OBJECTS AND PEOPLE
This unit gives you examples of away, here, in, off, on, on top of, out of, over, under, underneath, with and without when we are talking about objects, parts of the body and clothes.
Theres only a little rice in the package.
Unit 78: IN A ROOM
This unit gives you examples of at, away from, behind, beside, between, by, in, in front of, near, next to, off, on and through when we are talking about things and people in a room.
1 Look at this seating plan of a classroom
Unit 77: INDOORS
This unit gives you examples of above, at, below, by, downstairs, in, inside, on, out, outside and upstairs when we are talking about things in a building. Look at this plan of a student hostel.
There is a laundry room in the basement. Th
Unit 76: OUTDOORS
This unit gives you examples of at, down, in, into, inside, off, on, onto, out of, outside, over, under and up when we are talking about outdoor places and public places.
This means at the same place as or near. We are not intereste
Unit 75: IN A TOWN OR CITY
This unit gives you examples of across, along, around, at, behind, between, in, in front of, into, next to, on, opposite, out of, outside, past, around and to when we are talking about places in a town or city. The street plan b
Unit 74: IN THE WORLD
This unit gives you examples of a long way from, in, into, near, off, on, outside, through, to and towards when we are talking about places in the world.
1 Look at the map of western Canada
Where do you live? Where is Edmonton? Where
Unit 73: HOW OFTEN?
This unit shows you how to say how often with frequency adverbs (Unit 64 tells you about adverbs generally) and with noun phrases (Unit 45).
1 With frequency adverbs
I always work late. I never go home early. I dont ever go home early.
Unit 72: PREPOSITIONS OF TIME
This unit shows you the meaning and use of after, at, before, by, for, from, in, on, since, to, until when we want to say when or how much time.
Monday comes before Tuesday. Tuesday comes after Monday.
at six oclock / hal
Unit 71: ADVERBS OF TIME
Unit 66 tells you about the position of adverbs generally. This unit shows how to use ago, already, late, lately, later, just, still, then and yet to talk about when.
Ill be here again on Friday. Ill see you then. First, I got u
Unit 70: COMPARING THREE OR MORE
We can use both comparative and superlative forms (Unit 68). SUPERLATIVE FORM That was the best film Ive ever seen. The Nile is the longest river in the world. Nobody here gets much money but John gets the least. Everybody
Unit 69: COMPARING TWO
Here are some ways to say that two things or people or ideas are the same or different.
1 When they are different
We can say the same thing or NEGATIVELY not as as = = = = = Italy is not as hot as Iraq. The exam was not as difficu
Unit 68: FORMS FOR COMPARISON
Athens 30oC Cairo 33oC Baghdad 36oC = = = hot hotter (this is the comparative form) the hottest (this is the superlative form)
When we want to make a comparison, we often change the form of a word. Adjectives and adverbs (Uni
Unit 67: SOME IMPORTANT ADVERBS 1 Really / almost / hardly / just
These words can give extra information about a whole sentence. I really like football. I dont really like football. I really dont like football. I just dont like football. We almost missed
Unit 66: POSITION OF ADVERBS
Some adverbs can go at the beginning of the sentence: (Sometimes we go swimming) and in the middle (We sometimes go swimming) and at the end (We go swimming sometimes). But many adverbs cannot go in all of these positions.
Unit 65: POSITION OF ADJECTIVES
Most adjectives can go either in a noun phrase (Unit 45) or alone.
1 In a noun phrase
The adjective goes before the noun or pronoun: a difficult exam an open window (NOT exam difficult) (NOT window open) happy people the
Unit 63: COMPLEX SENTENCE TYPES
Simple sentence types are in Unit 62. This unit shows you some other types of sentence. It also tells you the most useful verbs which you can use with each type. NOTICE: To understand NOUN PHRASES, look at Unit 45. To learn
Unit 62: SIMPLE SENTENCE TYPES
All sentences need a subject and a verb. Some sentences do not need anything else to complete them. But with most sentences, a subject and a verb are not enough. This unit shows you seven basic types of sentences.
Unit 61: EMPTY SUBJECTS
Every sentence must have a subject (Unit 1), but sometimes the subject does not mean anything.
We do not usually put new information at the beginning of a sentence. So instead of: A man is at the door. Books were on the des
Unit 6O: RELATIVE CLAUSES
If we want to give extra information about a noun, and an adjective (Unit 64) is not enough, we can use a relative clause. Relative clauses often begin with one of the relative pronouns: who, which, that, where and whose.
Unit 59: ONE
This unit shows you the different ways to use this word. There is also a plural pronoun, ones.
1 As a number
before of: One of my brothers has just gone to England. Can I have one of your cigarettes?
before a noun when you want to show th
Unit 58: BOTH / EITHER / NEITHER
We can use these words in noun phrases. We use them when we are talking about exactly two (not one and not more than two). Both is plural (Both girls are married); either and neither are singular (Neither of them has child
Unit 57: QUANTITY
We can use any many all every most a few much a little no a lot of none of lots of some
to talk about how much or how many of a noun. When we are talking about quantity, we can talk about number (general quantity) or we can talk about pe
Unit 56: MASS & UNIT IN SENTENCES
Different words go with different types of noun. Sometimes we use the same word with plural nouns and mass nouns (1 below), and sometimes we use different words (2 below).
Unit nouns 1
SINGULAR I want an apple. I dont wan