FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCES
CONCEPTS OF BIOLOGY
Specialized Cells and Staining Technique
Date of submission
1. Siti Hasmah bt Mohd Hanapiah (2015217552)
2. Nurul Hanani bt Baharin
WHAT IS CLONING?
Known as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)
Process of producing similar populations of genetically
Scientists extract the DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) from
an animal cell and implant it into an egg cell taken from
o the reproductive
cloning of human beings
is contrary to human
o suggesting that human
reproductive cloning be
ASPECTS OF CLONING
o Christianity :stating that it represents a "grave offense
WHY CLONING IS CONTROVERSIAL
draws criticism in the context of animal and plant
replication, and invites even more criticism when applied to
praise cloning for eradicating certain diseases and
artificial gene selection
Impacts in future if cloning doesnt have a guideline.
Cloning may be good and it may be bad. Probably its a bit of both .The question
must not be greeted with reflex hysteria but decided quitely, soberly and at its own merits.
We need more thought and les
Reproductve cloning can be
considered unethical and against
"god's" wishes. Many people
believe that because clones were
created by man, they will be
unable to feel and empathize.
Reproductve cloning is
considered unsafe. At least 95%
of mammals cloned
Advantages of Cloning
It helps infertile couples to bear children.
Human cloning could make it possible for many more infertile couples to have
children than ever before possible.
It has great contribution to organ replacement.
Embryonic stem cells ca
Religious: Taken a strong stand against cloning
Scientist : Tend to focus on the positive benefits of cloning and
discount the dangers
Bioethicist : All the presently in-place bioethical guidelines militate
against approval of cloning
HISTORY OF CLONING
Clearly, 1997 was the year of the clone
1996 - Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell cloned the first animal from adult
Dolly the sheep, born on July 5, 1996, was created using the so-called Roslin
The cover illustration ofNatu
The first idea for cloning came about in 1938 when Hans Spermann suggested an
experiment where one would replace the nucleus of an egg with another cell and grow a new
specimen from that. Cloning has now moved on from frogs and rabbits to sheep and dogs.
Cloning : A historical
discovery of Science
Course Code : SIX 1001
Course Description : Introduction to Science and Technology
Submitted to : Dr. Mohd Salim Bin Mohamed
Submitted by : Group 17
Science is the knowledge attained throug
SHES 1201 Cell Biology
Branch of biology that deals with heredity and variation of organisms.
Carry the hereditary information (genes).
1. Homologous Chromosomes
A set of one maternal and one paternal chromosomes that pa
Acid-fast is a physical property of some bacteria referring to their resistance to decolorization
by acids during staining procedures.
Acid-fast organisms are difficult to characterize using standard microbiological techniques (e.g.
Explain Kochs postulates
Benefit of Microbiology
Theory of Spontaneous generation
Give one marked difference between simple microscope and compound microscope
Who was the first to initiate agar, pure culture technique
Experiment 5- Biochemical Tests
A diverse range of biochemical tests are known for the identification of certain
bacteria and to differentiate between bacteria. In these experiments we use 2 types
of bacteria which are Bacillus subtilisand St
Dropper, Benedicts reagent, IKI stain, Amylase solution 1%, Dilute solution of sucrose,
Glucose, Maltose, Starch, Distilled water, Bottle of Pepsi, Potatoes, Test tubes, Petri-dishes, and
Task 1: Benedicts test for reducing suga
1. What is the term for metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking
down complex molecules?
A) anabolic pathways
B) catabolic pathways
C) fermentation pathways
D) thermodynamic pathways
E) bioenergetic pathways
2. The molecule that functions