Chapter 1
Getting Started
Economic data sets are viewed as a sample from the population.
The challenge is to use the sample to make statements about the
behaviour of the population. Some degree of uncertainty must be
recognized since the sample is only on
Chapter Five
The Standard Trade Model
5-1
Introduction
The standard trade model combines ideas from the
Ricardian model and the Heckscher-Ohlin model.
1.
Differences in labor, labor skills, physical capital, land and
technology between countries cause pro
Chapter 3
3-1
Absolute Advantage
Assume that labor is the only factor of production,
labor productivity is constant, define a unit labor
requirement as the constant number of units of labor
required to produce one unit of output.
aLW is the unit labor re
Chapter Four
H-O Model
4-1
Introduction
While trade is partly explained by differences in labor
productivity, it also can be explained by differences in
resources across countries.
The Heckscher-Ohlin theory argues that international
differences in labo
Chapter 6
Economies of Scale, Imperfect
Competition, and International Trade
6-1
Introduction
When defining comparative advantage, the Ricardian
model and the Heckscher-Ohlin model both assume
constant returns to scale:
If all factors of production are d
Chapter 7.1
Properties of Point Estimators
Let the random sample X 1 , X 2 , . . . , X n be a set of random
variables that are independently and identically distributed.
An applied study works with a data set.
The numeric observations are: x 1 , x 2 , . .
Chapter 5
Continuous Random Variables
A continuous random variable can take any numerical value in some
interval. Assigning probabilities to individual values is not possible.
Probabilities can be measured in a given range.
For a continuous random variabl
Chapter 3.1
Random Experiment, Outcomes and Events
In the analysis of economic data any conclusions involve some
uncertainty. To incorporate ideas of uncertainty into the study of
economic data an understanding of probability theory is needed.
the empty s
Chapter 10.4 Testing the Equality of Variances
Consider two random samples. Assume:
Like the chi-square distribution, the F distribution is defined only for
non-negative values and the skewed shape of the probability density
function depends on the degree
Chapter 8.1
Confidence Intervals for the Difference
Between Two Population Means
Let ( X i , Yi ) for i = 1, 2, . . . , n be a pair of random variables that
each follow the normal distribution with population means
X and Y .
From the observed sample calc
Report of daily stock market data for the Johnson and Johnson
This report analyzes daily stock market data for the Johnson and Johnson in the year 1999.
From graph of the daily closing price from Jan 1999 to Jan 2000, as we can see, the minimum
closing pr
Chapter 9.1
Hypothesis Testing
To test the hypothesis, a test statistic is computed from the sample
data. The decision to take can then be either:
Interval estimation leads the way to hypothesis testing.
do not reject the null hypothesis, or
A statistica
Clicker Question
A study of the effectiveness of a statistics course records test
scores of students from a "before course" test and an "after
course" test. For each student a difference is calculated as:
(after score before score)
If the course is effect
Clicker Question
For a sample of final grades for 10 students the average
grade is 75.
A 90% interval estimate for the population mean is
calculated. The upper limit is 77.
Find the lower limit of the interval estimate.
A)
68
B)
70
C)
71
D)
73
E)
75
Econ
Clicker Question
For a sample of daily stock market prices for a company a
financial analyst would like to test the null hypothesis that
the population mean of the daily returns is zero against the
alternative of negative mean returns.
For the sample the
Now introduce two new statistics.
A Test of Normality
Textbook Reference: Chapter 14.2
(eighth edition, pages 591 3; seventh edition, pages 6246).
The calculation of p-values for hypothesis testing typically is based
on the assumption that the population
Instructions on R Computing
for Applied Statistics (EC208)
1 AN INTRODUCTION TO R . 3
1.1 R INSTALLATION . 3
1.1.1 The base system . 3
1.1.2 Packages . 4
1.2 R HELP AND DOCUMENTATION . 5
1.3 R WINDOWS .
Instructions on R Computing
for Applied Statistics (EC208)
1 AN INTRODUCTION TO R . 3
1.1 R INSTALLATION . 3
1.1.1 The base system . 3
1.1.2 Packages . 4
1.2 R HELP AND DOCUMENTATION . 5
1.3 R WINDOWS .
Keys to CC3: ANOVA and Linear regression
1. ANOVA
(1)
a.
> IDSalary <- read.csv(file="IDSalary.csv", row.names=1)
> attach(IDSalary)
> # Tests for the assumptions of ANOVA - normality & variance homogeneity
> shapiro.test(subset(IDSalary, Position="Inside
EC208
Computing Class
Mar 15, 2016
Computing Class 1: Descriptive statistics
Data household in package HSAUR2 is a data set collected from a survey of household
expenditure, and gives the expenditure of single men and women on several commodity groups.
Th
EC208
Computing Class
May 31, 2016
CC4: Principal component analysis
In the 1988 Seoul Olympics, the heptathlon () was won by a women athlete from
the USA, Jackie Joyner-Kersee. The results for all 25 athletes in all seven events are given in the
dataset
Instructions on R Computing
for Applied Statistics (EC208)
1 AN INTRODUCTION TO R . 2
1.1 R INSTALLATION . 2
1.1.1 The base system . 2
1.1.2 Packages . 3
1.2 R HELP AND DOCUMENTATION . 4
1.3 R WINDOWS .
EC208
Computing Class
April 12, 2016
Computing Class 2: Probability review and statistical inference
1. Inferential statistics
Q1. For several years, Industrial Distribution tracked compensation of industrial distribution (ID)
professionals. A survey was
Environmental Economics
and Policy
Haitao Yin
Pollution Charge or Tax Systems
Pollution charge or tax systems assess a certain
amount of money on the amount of pollution that a firm
or source generates.
The Environmental Protection
Law of China Article 28
Environmental Economics
and Policy
Haitao Yin
Renewable Portfolio Standards
An RPS requires all electricity generators (or
retailers) to demonstrate that they have supported a
certain amount of renewable energy generation.
Most RPS policies are enforced t
Environmental Economics
and Policy
Haitao Yin
Command and Control Regulation
Source: Kleindorfer and Orts, 1998
Environmental Policies in China
Laws: Environmental Protection Law of China (1989)
and many more on specific environmental
issues.
Regulations:
Environmental Economics
and Policy
Haitao Yin
Todays Agenda
Get to know each other
Introduction to Environmental Economics and
Policy
Important Things to Know
Grades will be calculated as follows:
20%
Attendance and Participation
40%
Midterm
40%
Course
Environmental Economics
and Policy
Haitao Yin
Legal Remedy for Environmental Harms
Tort law deals with environmental harms;
The two functions of tort law are
To provide the basis for recovery for an
injured party;
To deter others from engaging in simila
Instructions on R Computing
for Applied Statistics (EC208)
1 AN INTRODUCTION TO R . 3
1.1 R INSTALLATION . 3
1.1.1 The base system . 3
1.1.2 Packages . 4
1.2 R HELP AND DOCUMENTATION . 5
1.3 R WINDOWS .