To produce 4-bromobenzophenone by the Friedel-Crafts reaction
The Friedel-Crafts reactions are a set of reactions to attach substituents to an aromatic
ring. There are two main types of FriedelCrafts reactions which is alkylation re
ADVANCE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
OXIDATION OF CYCLOHEXANOL WITH PCC
ON A SILICA GEL SUBSTRATE
LECTURER: PROF. MADYA DR. SIDIK BIN SILONG
EXPERIMENT 3: OXIDATION OF CYCLOHEXANOL WITH PCC ON A SILICA
To synthesis flavone from 2-hydroxyacetophenone
To understand and compare the spectrum obtained from FTIR
Nature abounds with bright colour. Some arise by light diffraction by the complex
structure of the compounds but most colours
a) To prepare the phosphonium salt as Wittig reaction reagent.
b) To prepare 4-vinylbenzoic acid in a aqueous medium by a Wittig reaction.
c) To analyse the sample of 4-vinylbenzoic acid by using FTIR.
The Wittig reaction is one
1. To investigate the reduction reaction of a cyclohexanone to a cyclohexanol by using
the sodium boronhydride as the reducing agent.
2. To determine the percent yield of product (cyclohexanol) obtained.
In organic chemistry, a keto
EVALUATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA
Define the term significant figures
Give the answer to the following equations in the correct significant figure.
8.6 + 0.776
15.4 0.21 + 4.06
3.14 x 4.786/1.2239
(14.7 + 0.7
CHM 421: GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS
1) State six basic steps involved in gravimetric analysis.
2) State a suitable precipitating agent of Cl- and give the ionic equation for the precipitating reaction.
3) An unknown sample was
Nur Aisyah Mokhtar
EXPERIMENT 10: SEPARATION OF A MIXTURE OF ALUM FERRIC AND COPPER SULPHATE USING
COLUMN (ELUTION) CHROMATOGRAPHY
To separate a mixture of alum ferric and copper sulphate using column (elution) chromatog
1. The purpose of this experiment is to prepare the sodium hydroxide solution.
2. To standardise the base against Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate (KHP).
3. To analyse the unknown the vineger sample.
In this experiment we will learn abo
4. Briefly explain how to prepare the following solutions:
a) 1.0 L 10.50 % (w/v) aqueous CH3CH2CH2OH (answer : 105 g)
b) 500 mL 2.0 M H2SO4 from a commercial reagent, at 90% (w/w) purity and specific gravity
of 1.84. (answer : 59.18 mL)
c) 250 mL 50 ppm
APPARATUS, TECHNIQUES AND REAGENTS
1. Describe the basic pieces of apparatus used for volumetric measurements. List whether
each is designed to contain or to deliver the specified volume.
2. Distinguish between the zero point an
1. Define the term sampling. Explain the purpose of sampling.
Sampling is the process of obtaining a small mass of material whose composition
accurately represents the whole bulk of material (population). The purpose o
Chapter 2: Solutions of Electrolytes (CHM 520)
An electrolyte is a compound that ionises when dissolved in suitable ionising solvents
such as water.
Electrolytes: Is any substance containing free ions that make the substance
Chapter 1: Thermodynamics
After completing this lesson, student will be able to:
a) Define heat, work and energy
b) Distinguish between exothermic and endothermic reactions
c) Distinguish between open, close and isolated systems
Chapter 3: Equilibrium Electrochemistry
A cell consists of two electrodes, in contact with an electrolyte, an ionic conductor (which
may be a solution, a liquid or a solid).
An electrode and its electrolyte comprise an electrode comp
CHAPTER 4: RADIOCHEMISTRY
Radiochemistry may be defined as the study of the chemistry of atoms which have
A radioactive atom will at some time undergo radioactive decay enables us to carry out
certain experiments which would be diffi
Thermodynamics is the science that deals with
the relationship of heat and mechanical energy
and conversion of one into the other.
Dynamis-power or strength
The power of heat
Nur Rahimah Said
dw= work done by system
dz= distance of movement
-F=? (-ve value)
# gave an information that
1. System moves an object
against an opposing force
2. Internal energy of system
doing work will decrease
What is F?
a) Work done by the sy
Second Law of Thermodynamic
rock falling off a ledge
An ice melts in a glass
of iced tea stands at
an iron nail rusts
when exposed to
A spontaneous process is a change the occurs by
itself (without continuo
First Law of Thermodynamic
A Comparison of DH and DU
2Na(s) + 2H2O(l)
2NaOH(aq) + H2(g) DH = -367.5 kJ/mol
DU = DH - PDV
At 25 oC, 1 mole H2 = 24.5 L at 1 atm
PDV = 1 atm x 24.5 L = 2.5 kJ
DU = -367.5 kJ/mol 2.5 kJ/mol = -370.0 kJ
THIRD LAW OF
GIBBS FREE ENERGY
Defining the Gibbs Free Energy (DG)
Pictorial Representation of DG
GIBBS FREE ENERGY
Gibbs Free Energy (G) - The energy associated
with a chemical reaction that can be used to do
Experiment 2: Electrolytic Cell- Electrolysis of Aqueous
An electrolytic cell is an electrochemical cell that undergoes a redox reaction
when electrical energy is applied. It is most often used to decompose chemical
compounds, in a
Experiment 2: Electrolytic Cell- Electrolysis of Aqueous Solutions
a) To identify the reactions occurring at the anode and cathode during the electrolysis of
various aqueous salt solutions
b) To observe the electrolysis of water and the gases
Experiment 5: cyclic voltammetry- reversible reaction and determination of ion
Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is a versatile electroanalytical technique for the study of
electroactive species. CV monitors redox behaviour of chemical species within
EXPERIMENT 6: ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS AND CORROSION
a) To study electrochemical reactions of glassy carbon and iron in acidic solution.
b) To determine the corrosion rate of iron in different aqueous solution by Linear
EXPERIMENT 7: POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION (ACID BASE)
As a dilute HCl standard solution frequently is not adjusted exactly to a particular
concentration, but only has an approximate concentration of e.g. 0.1 M, its accurate
concentration must b
EXPERIMENT 3: CORROSION OF STEEL- WEIGHT LOSS ANALYSIS
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts refined metal to their more stable
oxide. It is the gradual destruction of materials (usually metals) by chemical reaction
with their enviro
Experiment 6: electrochemical reactions and corrosion studies
Corrosion converts steel, an extremely strong, cheap and versatile building material
composed of iron and carbon into brittle iron oxides known as rust. The rust tends to scale
EXPERIMENT 2: SODIUM BOROHYDRIDE REDUCTION OF CYCLOHEXANONE
To investigate the reduction reaction of a ketone to an alcohol using sodium borohydride
as the reducing agent.
Ketone is an organic compound with the structure RC(=O) R co