Types of Committees
Standing or Full Committees
21 House & 17 Senate
Special or Select Committees
Committee of the Whole
Sent to a Sub Committee
Small divisions of the Full or Standing C
The Judicial and Legislative Branches
Precedent: the way similar cases were decided in the past, and guide to the current decision
Legislative Courts (Article I courts)
Set up by Congress for a specialized purpose
Judges are not protected by Article III o
The Bill- in the House and Senate
If the bill is passed by the committee, it is sent to the whole House for debate and vote.
The committee has reported the bill favorably to the floor.
The Speaker determines which bills are discussed and for how long.
Supreme Court Overview
Judiciary The cornerstone of our democracy
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
- Allows the courts to rule on the constitutionality of laws, giving the court the power to strike
down or reinforce policy
- Judiciary Act of 1789
Supreme Court 2012 and Types of Opinions
Chief Justice John G. Roberts, Jr. - Harvard (J.D.)
Justice Antonin Scalia - Harvard (L.L.B)
Justice Anthony M. Kennedy - Harvard (L.L.B)
Justice Clarence Thomas - Yale (J.D.)
Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg
The Use of Military Force
Army was originally designed for large engagements in Europe
o This has been obsolete since 1991
Majoritarian view of military:
o Everyone pays for the army and everyone benefits from the protection
Client view of military:
How a Bill Becomes a Law
The Journey of a Bill
Reduce drug abuse
Reform Defense Dept.
End mandatory retirement age
Help the disabled
- embody a clear, appealing idea (stop drugs, help old people)
Foreign and Military Policy
Foreign Policy In the U.S.
Way U.S. interacts with foreign countries.
Sets standards of interaction between people and businesses.
Reformed after 9/11 due to rise in terrorism awareness.
Impact of 9/11
o Led to a rise in pat
Structure of Defense Decision-Making
Structure reflects the desire for civilian control over the military
National Security Act of 1947: created the Department of Defense
o Secretary of Defense-commands authority over the defense establishment, sits on
Checks on Presidential Power
After Vietnam, Congress imposed restrictions on Presidential power:
o Limits on military or economic aid to foreign countries
o The War Powers Act
President must report military action to Congress
o Intelligence oversight