1. Find the equation of the line through points (1, 3) and (1, 4). (Write the equation
in slope-intercept form).
2. (a) What is the slope of the line dened by the equation
x + 2y = 6
(b) What is the y
assumptions about the cross-sectional
shape of the channels; and it does
depend strongly on the assumed value
of h. Because of volume conservation,
the product of Uchip and chip thickness t
is the sam
until the contacting asperities deform
mainly elastically. If the surface adhesion
is small (mild wear region), material is
first oxidized before it is removed
values of K from 104 to 1010 are
measur
used in this book for a metals shear flow
stress.) The proportionality of wear rate
to load and speed is perhaps obvious.
However, Archard considered the
mechanics of contact to establish likely
value
primary shear temperature rise
dominates the secondary (rake) heating.
The actual increase in temperature
shown in 86 Work and tool materials Fig.
3.4 Process stresses, derived from the
observations o
Figure 2.23 contains data obtained by
the authors on the dependence of m and
m on contact temperature. The data are
for a 0.45%C plain carbon steel (),
0.45%C and 0.09%C resulphurized free
machining c
temperatures generated when
machining the various work groups listed
in Table 3.1. In Section 3.2 the properties
of the tools that resist those stresses and
temperatures will be described. A
metals ma
context of the contact mechanics of the
previous section. Figure 2.27 shows,
somewhat schematically, the contact
between the chip and tool. The hatched
region represents the real area of
contact, cove
Al2024 (Section 3.1.2), which are from
results by Kobayashi and Thomsen
(1959). The data on machining elemental
metals come from the same experiments
on those metals considered by Trent in
his book (T
the results of Figure 3.6 Childs Part 1
28:3:2000 2:38 pm Page 88 elemental
metals. Figure 3.8 shows only the values
of k, but (sn)av may be calculated to be
0.6k. Figure 3.9 shows both k and (sn)av.
(Trake) av are estimated from the cutting
data. A picture is built up of the stress
and temperature conditions that a tool
must survive in machining these
materials. The primary shear plane shear
stre
contact stress distribution for two values
of pE/k. Almost the whole of the plateau
friction stress region is in the plastic
(secondary shear) region, with sn/k > 1.
The plateau region is consistent w
Some observations on the shearing
process in metal cutting. Trans ASME J.
Eng. Ind. 81B, 251262. Lee, E. H. and
Shaffer, B. W. (1951) The theory of
plasticity applied to a problem of
machining. Trans.
phase lubrication in the orthogonal
machining of an aluminium alloy. Proc. I
Mech. E. Lond. 209Pt.J, 131136.
Weiner, J. H. (1955) Shear plane
temperature distribution in orthogonal
cutting. Trans ASME
mechanics framework, but there is still
work to be done before friction in metal
machining is fully understood. 2.4.2
Lubrication in metal cutting The previous
section has emphasized the high friction
reduction in forces and an increase in
shear angle with increasing speed, up to
a limit beyond which further changes do
not occur, is a common observation that
will also be seen in many of the followi
materials engineering headings?). This
chapter is mainly concerned with the
work materials mechanical and thermal
properties, and tool thermal and failure
properties, which affect machinability.
Tool
experience summarized in Figure 2.29.
(There is another point: the
proportionality between dh/dt and sn/k
in equation (2.31) is only established for
conditions in which Ar/An < 0.5. Values
larger than
from it, but for the most part this has
been at the level of observation.
Predictive mechanics is taken up in the
second half of this book, from Chapters 6
onwards. Summary 79 Fig. 2.31 (a) Flank
and
a hardness test, to relate the contact
width to the load W on the cone. Noting
that, during sliding, the load W is
supported on the semicircle of area pr2
r/2, r2 r was equated to (2/p)(W/H),
where H
gathers information on the typical values
of these quantities for six different
groups of work materials that are
important in machining practice. The
data for steels exclude quench hardened
materials
the whole contact: by attacking at the
edge, it can reduce the whole. So the
question becomes: what is the distance l
p (Figure 2.27) that a gas or liquid can
penetrate along the channels? The
followi
A circle is the collection of all points in
the plane, which are equidistant from a
fixed point in the plane.
A circle is a plane figure.
Euclid discovered the circle.
The fixed point is called the
Warm-Up Exercise
You will need to use a calculator (unless you are a
Math Wiz Kid). Follow the directions step by
step, making sure to hit the equal key after every
step.
Key in the first three digit
Trigonometry is the branch of mathematics that deals
with triangles particularly right triangles.
They are behind how sound and light move and are also
involved in our perceptions of beauty and other
navycaria
navycaria
Algebra is the use of letters and symbols to
represent values and their relations,
especially for solving equations.
The combination of each letters and
symbols are called Algebrai
A
POWERPOIN
PRESENTATION
ON
CIRCLE
What is a circle?
Circles are simple closed curves which
divide the plane into two regions: an
interior and an exterior.
Features OF
CIRCLE.
Diameter
Radius
the di