What do we mean by the word diversity?
Socially: variety of genotypes, cultures, ethnicity within a society Biodiversity: Number of species in an area; number of different genera, families, etc. represented in the area; variety of growth forms and life
1 What is the evidence that organisms have actually changed, ie. evolved, over time?
Physical evidence (fossils) pattern in time Comparison of living forms pattern in present day An observable, testable process for evolutionary change (natural selection)
The cabbage group of vegetables all evolved from one ancestor, with the help of humans This is artificial selection or human selection
2 Wild mustard similar to the ancestor of broccoli, cabbage, etc.
Different breeds of dogs came about thro
The modern synthesis, synthetic theory of evolution, or Neo-Darwinism, combines natural selection with the principles of Mendelian principles of Mendelian genetics
2 What is a gene pool? What is an allele? What is the role of mutation?
How do new species come into existence? How do evolutionary trends result in genera, families etc families, etc.? How do complex structures come about? Is anything irreducibly complex?
If humans descended from apes, why are t
1 What is life?
"An organized genetic unit capable of metabolism, reproduction, and evolution." (Purves, et al.) "A self-sustained chemical system capable of undergoing Darwinian evolution" (NASA definition) Cells, metabolism, adaptation, homeostasis, gr
The three main branches of life
The two domains of prokaryotic organisms are the Bacteria and the Archaea
Genes located on a single circular chromosome and sometimes on smaller plasmids Chromosomes not separated into a membranebound nucleus
How and why did the first eukaryotic cells come about?
Flexible exterior loss of cell wall Cytoskeleton Internal vesicles, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum Nuclear envelope true nucleus mitochondria, chloroplasts through endosymbiosis Larger size: up to
1 What is a plant?
Photosynthetic Multicellular, complex tissues and organs Protection of embryos (embryophytes) Indeterminate growth forming antenna-like systems Growth from discrete meristems Growth, movement, and transport are powered by turgor pressu
Flowers are bisexual structures adapted for pollination by animals
Pollen is produced in the stamens Ovules are contained in chambers called pistils Petals are colored and/or produce nectar and fragrance to attract animals to the flowers f i
Which kinds of organisms came on to the land first?
Terrestrial fungi, plants, and animals evolved from freshwater aquatic organisms why? The first multicellular organisms on land were probably fungi what did they feed on?
How do fungi feed themsel
Multicellular animals have certain recognizable traits
Motility via muscles, nerves Various internal and external skeletons for protection and locomotory support Food ingestion and internal digestive system Sensory systems Excretion/osmoregulation thro
Why do we see such a spectacular radiation of animals during the Cambrian period? 543-490 million years ago First appearance of shells, hard skeletons = much greater chance of fossilization E Emergence of predators f d t
Why do animals have
1 How did insects become the dominant invertebrates in the terrestrial environment? Flight Diverse feeding habits Small size rapid reproduction size, Co-evolution with plants Over a million species known, and still counting; the majority associated with f
Chordates include the Vertebrates as their most successful and diverse branch, along with some small ancient precursors
What are the essential features of the chordates?
What advantage did these features give them over other aquatic forms o
Why did animals come out onto the dry land?
2 At first, they probably didn't stay out for long
The Paleozoic Era saw the origins of most major animal groups, except for the birds
Diversification of reptiles, mammalian ancestors
Why do we think lobe-
1 What does it mean to be human? Intelligence, Language, Technology, self-awareness, time-awareness, religion, p g , philosophy p y Humans belong to the order Primates Why primates? Why not cephalopods, reptiles or dogs?
2 The ancestors of the p