Chapter 2:
Definitions
Definitions aid us in clarifying our concepts and
making them more precise.
Definitions help us know what is and what is
not included in a concept.
Definitions (contd)
We may expand our knowledge by adding new
concepts, based upo

Chapter 6:
Categorical Propositions
Examples: All geese are birds.
No pelicans are geese.
Some boats are arks.
Some days are diamonds.
All of the above examples are categorical
propositions.
(The preceding statement is also a categorical
proposition.)
C

Chapter 11:
Predicate Logic
Predicate logic allows us to look more deeply
into the analysis of statements than does
propositional logic.
Predicate logic analyzes the subject/predicate
relationship to represent the inner structure
of propositions.
Singul

Chapter 9:
Propositional LogicPropositions
As an example of a sentence in English, lets
consider:
The sun is warm.
This example is a statement or proposition
that can be assessed as either true or false.
We can also symbolize the statement, using a
let

Chapter 7: Categorical Syllogisms
A categorical syllogism is a type of argument
so it is necessary to clearly distinguish the
premises from the conclusion.
Indicator words are helpful in correctly
identifying the conclusion of a categorical
syllogism.
S

Chapter 1:
Classification
A category is a group of things indicated by a
noun.
Classification of things into categories is a key
way of conceptually organizing the world.
Words, particularly nouns, may refer to
categories or groups, which is to say tha

Chapter 8:
Reasoning with Syllogisms
The rhetorical use of language can distract us from
noticing whether the syllogisms and other
arguments used in the rhetoric are valid and
sound.
Identifying categorical, hypothetical, or disjunctive
propositions and

Chapter 4:
Argument Analysis
Sometimes we reason and argue about issues
based on our direct observations or
experiences.
In other cases, we reason and argue about
issues that go beyond our direct observations
and experiences.
Reasoning with Propositions

Chapter 3:
Propositions
Propositions: A proposition can be evaluated
as true or false.
Propositions are the units of thought, and are
typically expressed in sentences.
Propositions (contd)
Sentences involve the subject/predicate
relationship.
For exam

Chapter 5:
Fallacies
Fallacies are mistakes in reasoning.
There are formal and informal fallacies.
This PowerPoint presentation focuses on the
informal fallacies.
Fallacies (contd)
As you examine fallacies, keep these points in mind:
To decide which f

Chapter 10:
Propositional LogicArguments
Truth tables can be used with single
statements and with arguments:
1. The complete truth table shows all the truth
values of an argument, and shows whether
the argument is valid or invalid.
2. The shortcut truth