VM PMI 126
There is only one correct answer for each question. Select the best answer.
All antigens are immunogens.
Adjuvants are used in vaccine to suppress unwanted immune responses.
PMI 126 Lecture 14 Th2 and Th1 cannot be distinguished by the surface proteins but can be distinguished by the type of cytokine secreted. Secreted cytokine determines the class switch of B cell. When naive helper T cells encounter the dendritic cell which
PMI 126 Lecture 4 Organs of The Immune System All the fluid (containing soluble proteins associated with the immune system) of body drains down through lymphatic system. And go through lymph node and out of lymph node, then back into blood. granulocyte ne
PMI 126 Lecture 16 TH-1 => production of interferon gamma => directly involve in activation of NK, macrophage, and CTL. TH-2 => production of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 => focus its effort toward telling the B cell what specific antibody to make Cytotoxic T ce
PMI 126 Lecture 15 IL-6, TNI-alpha, and IL-1: all three induce fever, induce change in vascular endothelial cells, induce the recruitment of neutrophil. IL-2: autocrine growth factor Cytokines: soluble messengers of the immune system - small molecular wei
PMI 126 Lecture Hypersensitivity
Hypersensitivity: inappropriate immune responses People are not bore with hypersensitivity. (inappropriate memory responses) People have to be "sensitized" by allergen to develop hypersensitivity. Type I Responses: allergy
PMI 126 Lecture (MT3- start) B cell development/maturation - defined by both cell-surface expression of proteins characteristic of various stages of B cell development and the status of Ig gene rearrangement Bone marrow site of B cell maturation (largely
PMI 126 Lecture 11
B cell receptor can bind from primary to quatnary structure of proteins Majority of antibody recognize nonsequential epitope (created by folding of proteins) Hard to make vaccine for B cell? T cell receptor (TCR): Two types of TCR's TC
PMI 126 Lecture Antigen presentation and the MHC: T helper cell = conductor of immune system - has TCR (affinity of antigen+ MHC is only a fraction of antigen to antibody) * bind to peptide with MHC class II expressed by APC - has CD4 (D= differentiation)
PMI 126 - Lecture 9 Possible combinatorial associations of heavy and light chains is about ~10^6 => just by different combination of V,D,J. => billion of B cells being made in bone marrow => generate receptors for almost everything. Ig DIVERSITY Combinato
PMI 126 - Lecture 8 Antigen-Antibody Interactions (Serology and Flow Cytometry ) * serology: process where we measure or identify the presence of antibody in the serum sample for a given antigen - Identification of antigen-specific antibody => serology *
PMI 126 Lecture 7 Antibody-antigen interactions occurs at the very end of the antibody (binding site of the antigen) antigen binding site is formed by variable region of heavy chain and light chain combining. The binding has extremely high affinity Antibo
PMI 126 Lecture 5 (end of midterm I) the building block for specificity of T and B cell are in the germ-line tremendous processes occur at DNA level to creates various receptors that are specific for certain antigen. The genes that are actually exist in T
PMI 126 LECTURE 5 Phagocytic cells of the innate response: - monocytes/macrophages - polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils and eosinophils) o normally stay in the blood unless there is tissue insult - dendritic cells All of these cell types possess nu
PMI 126 Lecture 3 Cells of the Innate Immune System Phagocytic cells = phagocyties: all have the capacity to engulf pathogens - a functional subset of leukocytes (white blood cells) - these are the cells that take in foreign microbes = eating cells - some
Major Groups of Human Pathogens: 1. Viruses: - example: Polio, smallpox, influenza, measles, AIDS - obligate intracellular pathogen: only way viruses can grow is to get inside the living cells * the way they get in => to find a receptor on the living host