En proportional to 1/n2
En
n2!
n2!
n!
Atoms other than hydrogen!
Spin! Electron-electron interaction!
APPROXIMATE techniques:! Variational method! Perturbation theory! Hartree-Fock!
ELECTRON SPIN!
Compton Scattering (1921): AH Compton suggested that the e
Chapter 3
Thermodynamics of Biological Systems
.
Chapter Outline
v Thermodynamic concepts Systems - Isolated systems cannot exchange matter or energy with surroundings - Closed systems exchange energy but not matter - Open systems exchange both energy and
Chapter 2
Water: The Medium of Life
.
Chapter Outline
v Properties of water: High boiling point, high melting point, high heat of vaporization, high surface tension, high dielectric constant, maximum den sity as a liquid: All due to ability of water to hy
Eigenvalue problems
Linear transformation Ax = x
A is a given square matrix The scalar is unknown x is a vector to be determined Values of satisfying the equation Ax = x are called eigenvalues and non trivial solutions x (x # 0) are called eigenvectors.
Schroedinger equation in spherical coordinates
(r, , ) = (r, , )
V(r)
(r, , )
En proportional to 1/n2
En
n2!
n2!
n!
Use of spherical coordinates, separation of variables and some algebraic manipulations yield two separate equations for radial and angu