Sociology 106:
Intermediate Social Statistics
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Information about this course
What is Social Statistics?
Review of Basic Concepts
descriptive vs. inferential statistics
population vs. s
10/6/13
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Hypothesis testing
Significance tests for large samples
Steps of a significance test
Means
Proportions
Significance tests for small samples
t statistic
Hypothesis Testing
In
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Inferential statistics parameter estimation
Point estimation
Interval estimation
Confidence intervals for means
Confidence intervals for proportions
Parameter Estimation
In parameter e
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Causality
3 criteria for causality
Multivariate relationships
Statistical control
Multivariate regression
Estimation
Interpretation
Comparing nested models
What do we mean by cau
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Multivariate regression
Testing causal models
Model goodness-of-fit
Comparing nested models, F
Testing causal models
Suppose we are interested in understanding the causal relationshi
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Bivariate Regression
Statistical Inference and hypothesis testing
Predicted value of y, y
Using the data on SAT and GPA scores, we estimated a regression
equation:
y = 0 .198 + 0 .533 x
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Correlation
What is correlation?
Scatterplots
Covariance
Pearson correlation coefficient, r
properties
significance test
factors affecting r
intercorrelation matrix
Variable types and St
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Bivariate Regression
What is regression?
Linear function: deterministic relationships
Linear regression function: stochastic
relationships
Assumptions
Estimating the linear regressi
11/4/13
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One-Way ANOVA Part 2
Conceptual explanation again
Examples
The logic of One-Way ANOVA
H0: 1 = 2 = = g
That is: the populations from which the samples are drawn all
have the sa
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Contingency tables
Bivariate probability distributions
joint
conditional
Associations
statistical independence and dependence
Chi-square test of independence
chi-square test stati
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Probability distributions
Normal distributions and standardized
scores
Standard normal distributions
Sampling distributions
Interpretations of Probability
Two primary interpretations
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Chi-square test of independence (contd)
Measuring Association using Odds Ratio
Simpsons paradox the missing 3rd variable
2 test statistic
IJ
( f o f e )2
ij =1
fe
=
2
2 test of independ
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Significance tests for two groups
Significance tests for dependent (paired) samples
Type I and Type II Errors
Dependent, or Paired, Samples
Dependent samples:
- if there is some sort
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Significance tests for two groups
Hypothesis tests comparing two groups
Significance tests for independent samples
Comparing two means
Comparing two proportions
Bivariate analysis
B
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Descriptive statistics
Central tendency
mode
mean
median
Variability
variance
standard deviation
Summary measures as estimators of
population parameters
Mode
The mode of a frequ
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One-Way ANOVA
Explanation
Examples
One-Way ANOVA
ANOVA: Analysis of Variance
One-Way ANOVA is a statistical tool used to
draw inferences about differences in the means of
two or more