LECTURE 1: INTRODUCTION
What you can expect to learn in this course . . . !
This class will focus on six major earth hazards: earthquakes, volcanoes,
tsunami, landslides, floods, and hurricanes
A few concepts will come up throughout the class t
Lecture 18: Impacts
Chunks of space rock in the asteroid belt orbiting the sun.
Believed to be remnants of material that did not coalesce when the planets formed
around the sun.
Most asteroids remain in the asteroid belt, however the g
FLOODS, Part 2
Types of Human Effects
Preventing ground soaking, which forces rapid/more water run-off into streams.
Increasing sediment loads, which choke rivers and increase stream gradients.
Constrict river channels and access to f
Volcanic Hazards: Ariborne Ash, Yellowstone
Eyjafjallajokull, Iceland (2010 eruption)
Basaltic ash clouds
Large airborne ash cloud spreads over Europe
Air travel chaos - initially European, eventually global
Lecture 16: Floods, Part 1
Flooding: the most costly geologic hazard in terms of both loss of life and
loss of property
Natural Causes of Floods:
- Rapid input from rainstorms
- Long period of continued rainstorms
- Saturated ground
River Channel G
GEOLOGY 17 - Lecture 13:
Volcano Hazards: Case Studies
Where do active volcanoes occur?
In recorded history, about 550 different volcanoes have erupted on
- this total of 550 is only a portion of the total number of volcanoes
VOLCANO MONITORING AND HAZARD MITIGATION
The Danger Posed by Volcanoes
When a volcano erupts near densely populated areas, however, the effects can
Around the globe, 59 major cities rest on top of historic lava flows or
GEL 17 Lecture 12: Volcano Hazards
1. Volcanic ash
Volcanic ash is composed of tiny particles of volcanic glass and
Ash can block sunlight for hours to days
Can cause roof collapse, especially if wet
Can cause disruption of power and water/sewer
Lecture 11: Volcanoes
Volcano: a vent through which magma reaches the Earths surface, or an edifice
built from the products of an eruption.
Magma: melted (molten; liquid) rock
Lava: magma that has erupted (i.e. reached the Earths surface)
How do ro
Lecture 8: Tsunami
What is a Tsunami?
Tsu = Harbor or Port
Nami = Wave
Japanese term: destructive waves often develop resonant phenomenon in
harbors or ports after offshore earthquakes.
Often travel at great speed and with sufficient force to inundate t
Lecture Topic 7: Earthquake Forecasting
We are pretty good at predicting WHERE earthquakes are likely to occur (though
earthquakes regularly occur on faults that were not previously known to geologist
Lecture 6: Global Earthquake Hazards
Global seismic hazard map: greatest risks are along convergent and
transform plate boundaries.
85% of all earthquakes are shallow (less than 20 km depth).
The greatest damage & fatalities are not always from the bigges
Earthquakes and Other Earth Hazards
Spring Quarter 2014
Instructor: Dr. Bruce Pauly
email address: [email protected]
Office: 1125 EPHSCI (Earth and Physical Sciences)
Office Hours: Monday and Wednesday, 1:10 to 2:00 pm
Class Meetings: 2:10 to 3:0