89. Value consciousness refers to
A. the difference between perceived value and actual value of an individual product or service.
B. a fear of being unduly influenced by marketing actions such as advertisements,
C. a desire to pay the le
18. The social forces of the environment include the demographic characteristics of the
population and its _. Changes in these forces can have a dramatic impact on
A. living standards
B. social class
35. By 2030 the U.S. population is expected to exceed
A. 276 million.
B. 300 million.
C. 325 million.
D. 340 million.
E. 373 million.
36. The age segment in America expected to almost double in size by 2030 is composed of
A. children under the age of 16.
85. What are the two most important values for all age groups in the United States?
A. Health and fitness
B. Patriotism and loyalty
C. Protecting the family and honesty
D. Self-esteem and health
E. Friendship and fitness
86. Concern for health and fitness
96. A time of slow economic activity when businesses decrease production, unemployment
rises, and many consumers have less money to spend is referred to as
A. economic fluctuation.
C. an escalation.
D. a recession.
E. a depression.
97. In a
104. If taxes rise at a faster rate than income does, consumers most likely
A. can finally afford to take a vacation.
B. feel more confident in the government and traditionally spend more money.
C. feel the pinch of less disposable income and try to econo
100. Gross income refers to
A. the money that remains after paying for taxes and necessities.
B. the money deducted from a person's gross income for Federal, state, and local taxes.
C. the money a consumer has left after paying taxes to use for food, shel
93. Economy refers to
A. the income, expenditures, and resources that affect the cost of running a business and
B. the purchase of the highest quality product for the lowest possible price.
C. the purchase of the greatest quantity of a product
76. Multicultural marketing refers to
A. multi-national firms that operate in an expanded global marketplace.
B. collaborations and partnerships between firms from different countries designed to serve the
broadest customer base possible.
82. The video game industry has traditionally marketed their programs primarily towards men.
Gaming companies are now hiring women to add female characters to games and
A. redesigning pre-existing characters to look less gender specific.
B. adding product
111. Carl and Nancy Johnson prepared a household budget in an attempt to manage their
money better. As part of the budgeting process, Carl and Nancy prepared the following list:
Monthly Income (after taxes): $4500.00
Monthly Expenses (Necessities)
108. The Department of Labor monitors consumer expenditures through its annual
A. Consumer Expenditure Survey
B. Consumer Confidence Index
C. Consumer Price Index
D. Customer Value Scale
E. National Consumer Data Analysis
109. Emily had an excellent ye
114. The recent large decline in _ has had a psychological impact on consumers who
tend to spend more when they feel their net worth is rising and postpone purchases when it
A. automobile prices
B. fuel prices
C. the number of people competing f
122. In the U.S. alone, roughly 500 million computers will become obsolete between 2007 and
2017. These computers contain more than 2 billion pounds of what will become lead waste that
is harmful to the environment. As a result, computer manufacturers are
125. Buying a book at www.amazon.com to give as a birthday present is an example of an
A. electronic commerce
B. Internet relationship
E. electronic partnering
126. Any activity that uses some form of electronic comm
118. Medication sensors have been developed that can dispense medicines by circulating
within the arteries of the body and sensing when the medication is needed. This is an example
of how _ help(s) to improve or replace existing products and companies.
133. Alternative firms that could provide a product to satisfy a specific market's needs are
referred to as
A. substitute markets.
B. target markets.
C. indirect competition.
D. cross product marketers.
134. Competition refers to
129. A(n) _ is an Internet/Web-based network used within the boundaries of an
A. partnering software application
B. commercial online service
E. Internet server
130. Office Depot has developed wireless, handheld compu
137. In marketing, the four basic forms of competition refer to
A. pure competition, limited competition, oligopoly, and monopoly.
B. dictatorship, monarchy, oligarchy, and democracy.
C. pure competition, cross-market competition, oligopoly, and pure mono
79. Which of the following statements regarding culture is most accurate?
A. Culture is easily influenced by contemporary trends.
B. Culture plays a far less significant role in consumer behavior than racial identity.
C. Because the U.S. is considered a "
72. Micropolitan statistical area refers to
A. a metropolitan statistical area of 2.5 million people or more.
B. a highly urbanized area with a centrally located population of at least 1,000,000 people.
C. a cluster of exurbs that function as a single uni
40. Which of the following statements regarding baby boomers is most accurate?
A. Baby boomers are important to the consumer market because of their increased earnings and
participation in the workforce.
B. Baby boomers are more educated and therefore mor
31. According to Figure 3-1 above, in what year will the population totals for people under 14
and people over 60 be relatively the same?
A. Some time in the1950s
B. Some time in the 1990s
C. In the year 2008
D. Some time in the 2040s
E. After 2050
26. Environmental scans have shown that the population of the United States is undergoing
dramatic change. Generally the population is becoming larger, older, and more diverse. By
2030, the number of people who are 65 years of age or older could make up 2
7. "Geo-enthusiast" refers to
A. people who are concerned about the environment and willing to do something about it.
B. firms that seek out new markets in all parts of the world regardless of a nation's wealth.
C. Generation "Y" members who have an extre
4. There were four steps in the GPS revolution. First new technologies were developed and
became readily available; second, _; third, competitive forces developed new
products and services; and finally consumer changed becoming "geo-enthusiasts."
A. GPS t
15. From the start of the war on terrorism, over $200 billion has been spent on the war effort in
Iraq. According to an environmental scan of the United States, this military expenditure is an
example of a change in _ forces.
11. You are the director of marketing for Littleton Hospital. You are doing an environmental
scan to help create a five-year marketing plan for the hospital. Which of the following
environmental trends should you consider to be the most important?
22. Google's myspace.com is a social network that is targeted primarily to people under the age
of 25. Increasing use of myspace.com as a networking tool for this target market is an example
of how _ forces impact the marketing environment
44. Generation X refers to
A. the generation of children born between 1946 and 1964
B. the generation of children born between WWI and WWII
C. the 15% of the population born between 1965 and 1976, also called the baby bust
D. the 72 million Americans born