WFC 134 Study guide for Final Exam March 2015
What is the Bidders Organ?
Exclusive to Bufonidae. An organ next to the testes in a male frog,
which develops into an ovary if the testes are removed and the male then
tries to ovulate. Wikipedia say
WFC 134 Study guide for Midterm 1 February 2015
Why arent the herps a monophyletic group? What kind of group are
they? What is meant by monophyly, paraphyly, and polyphyly?
-not monophyletic because it does not include aves (birds) also because
STUDY FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS
WFC 134 study guide
6 families, 33 genera, 170 species
earthworm-like amphibians whose bodies are segmented by encircling
primary grooves called annuli (some species have secondary & tertiary
What is the g
WFC 134 Study guide for Midterm 1
Why arent the herps a monophyletic group? What kind of group are they? What is
meant by monophyly, paraphyly, and polyphyly?
Why are herps even grouped together? Who was responsible for this and what did
Lecture 3: Guest Lecture (Amphibian Conservation in an Era of Global Change)
An era of Mass extinction?
o What is a mass extinction?
Caused by major geological events or climate changes
o Why do scientists think were entering a mass extinction?
Lecture 2: Study Guide
Who belongs at the terminal ends of each cladogram? Beginning with Actinopterygii
Ancient Sacropterygians and primitive tetrapods Modern tetrapods
! What makes the transitional forms transitional? (ie, what characters did they posse
What anuran family has intercallary elements?
-Hylidae, Centrolenidae, Rhacophorinae
What are intercalary elements?
Cartilaginous (sometimes bony, or ossified) elements between digits
(phalanges). Helps them hold on for dear life.
Evolution of tetrapods
Note outgroups of
Fins have extrinsic
Figure 2-1 from Pough et al. 2004
Phylogeny and systematics
Putting Biology into
What is the difference between taxonomy,
classification, and systematics?
Why is systematics important?
Terminology of systematics
Terms related to cladograms, groups, and
Course syllabus, organization, expectations
! What is herpetology?
Dr. Brian Todd
Diversity & an evolutionary perspective
Amphibians: more general trends
Generally rely on auditory calling and leks to
Relationships of extant taxa
Generally rely on
1. No limbs or limb girdles present (look like
2. Basically burrowing mode of life- in moist
soil- some are aquatic (with fins). Hardly ever
Caeciliidae - Afric
55families, >6,500 species (90% of
Hind limbs larger than front.
Fused tibio-fibula, radio-ulna.
Only 5-9 presacral vertebrae
Urostyle (fused post-sacral vertebrae)
Adults lack ta