The valid forms may be combined to construct larger
valid arguments. In such cases, the conclusion of one
valid argument may serve as a premise for another.
Remember the relationship between validity and truth.
PHI 005, Winter 2016
one stated in Example 3.1, even when you do not actually restate or rewrite the
argument in reconstructed form.You are then in a better position to evaluate the
assumptions or presuppositions behind the argument.
The Key to Identification: Seeing
What Is Supported by What
To understand deductive arguments fully, you first need to learn to identify their
partsthe premises and the conclusion. Ultimately, understanding them will
help you to evaluate ar
Valid Argument Patterns
All A are B
All men are mortal.
m is an A
Socrates is a man.
m is a B
Socrates is mortal.
If you slept in, you were late to class.
You slept in.
You were late to class.
If you slept in, you were late to cla
PHI 005Winter 2016
Midterm Study Guide
The midterm is currently scheduled for Thur, 02/04/16, during class.
An exam will be provided, so you do not need a blue book or additional
The exam will cover all material covered up to the date of the exam.
Valid Argument Forms
What would be helpful would be to have a quick way to
identify whether or not an argument is valid, even if we
know nothing about the content of the argument.
For us, validity is a syntactic property, i.e., the validity of
Soundness requires a valid argument with all true
While validity is a syntactic property, soundness has a
Semantics is bit messier, so were only going to review
a small number of issues that you
To be an argument, a set of sentences must be such
that one or more of them, called the premises,
attempt to support a sentence being argued for, called
For us, we also require that all component sentences
of an argument be tru
Inclusive and Exclusive Disjunction
In ordinary English discourse, the construction either
P or Q is ambiguous between two types of
disjunction: inclusive and exclusive.
PHI 005, Winter 2016
Arguments in Context
Identifying Premises and Conclusions
Using linguistic markers to determine the conclusion
There are a handful of expressions commonly used to
signal a conclusion and its premises.
See Identifying Premises and Conclusi
PHI 015 Introduction to Bioethics
Professor Rulli, FQ16
Due Date: October 20. The paper is due at the beginning of class, in class, in hard
copy. Follow the instructions (essays that do not follow the instructions are subject
to a 1/3 grade r