Microbes and the Tree of Life
Bis2C: Lecture 6
Sequences provide multiple characters within
homologous traits (i.e., homologous genes).
Homology: Sharing of traits via a
Bacteria and Archaea
Human associated diseases
Bis2C: Lecture 10
Intimate association between at least two
different organisms in which at least one
of them benefits
Classes of s
BIS2C Spring 2012 (Keen)
Lecture 2. Interpreting trees
(2 April 2012)
concepts of taxonomic groups
relationship between classification
Students should be able to:
compare and contrast Linnaean classification and
explain the concept
BIS2C Spring 2012 (Keen)
Lecture 1. Introduction to Trees
Lecture 1 ( 2 April AM)
!concepts of relationship
!tree terminology and concepts
!Students should be able to:
! explain why a phylogeny is constructed
! explain characters and character states
1. Social Psychology
A. KEY CONCEPTS:
social comparison theory
diffusion of responsibility
Conscious vs. Unconscious
Right now we are fully conscious (sleep is different that either conscious
You can become unconscious for a short time (e.g. during an epileptic seizure or
after a blow to the head) and then you
Learning and Memory / Memory and Learning
(Explicit Memory; Knowing that)
Memory for facts, ideas, and events
Memory for information that can be brought to conscious recollection
Receptive fields in visual system: the experiment
direction of motion
You can still perceive depth even
with one eye closed.
bigger is closer
(2) Occlusion borders:
Blind spot: where the retinal ganglion cell axons leave the eye
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
Normally occurs after
First complaints are that
it is difficult to read.
Progresses with age.
Visual field deficit is
in the c
Pain: a subjective experience
Nociception: The perception of a stimulus that, if continued, will cause
Nociceptor: A receptor that ultimately leads to nociception.
Pain and temperature pathway
Neurons with similar receptive fields are located next to
each other. Those with much different receptive fields are located farther away.
*Receptive field: electrophysiology (activity)
*Divergence and Convergence: neuroanatomy
Arrhythmic involuntary movements
Usually termed writhing.
Can involve only a few body parts or progress to the
Huntingtons Chorea is
an autosomal dominant.
It will progress from no
There are two types of motor neurons; injury to each
gives rise to very different symptoms:
Upper motor neuron: These are the neurons in the
brain or spin
Normal Action Potential
Hold voltage-gated Na+
Hold voltage-gated K+
Action potential with TTX
Hold voltage-gated K+ channels
Terms to Remember
Membrane Potential: This is the potential
(voltage) across the membrane that you measure.
It will fluctuate depending on what is happening to
Terms to Remember
LECTURE 11: Vision: The Eyeball and beyond
There are a couple of diseases of the retina that can lead to partial or complete
blindness. When you go to the eye doctor with a problem, like blindness, they will test
where you can see things and where you can
LECTURE 10: Pain, Temperature, and Vision (Part I)
Pain and temperature pathways:
At this point it is important to define two key terms, pain and nociception.
Pain is a subjective quality that will differ among different people. You can imagine that
Application of Newtons Second Law
Challenge Problem Solutions
Problem 1: Painter on a Platform
A painter of mass m1 stands on a platform of mass m2 and pulls himself up by two ropes
that run over massless pulleys, as shown. He pulls on each rope with a fo
Sustainable Agriculture (Topic 20)
The strength and longevity of any civilization depend on the ability to sustain the productive capacity of its agriculture. One must not confuse increasing crop yield with increasing soil productivity, because yield incr
Waste Disposal (Topic 19)
Biosolids are the byproduct of municipal wastewater treatment and are also known as sewage sludge. Approximately 10 million tons of municipal sewage sludge are produced each year in the U.S.; about 75 lbs/person/yr. Sewage sludge
Soil Erosion (Topic 18)
A nation that destroys its soils, destroys itself! (F.D. Roosevelt, 1937) Soil erosion is the most serious problem affecting the sustainable production of food and fiber. About 80% of the world's agricultural lands suffer moderate
Soils as a Media for Plant Growth
Role of Soil in Plant Growth 1. Support - a place for roots to anchor the plant 2. Water source 3. Aeration - provides O2 for root respiration 4. Nutrient source
Essential Nutrients - those elements necessary f
Soil Organisms (Topic 14)
The soil is alive! There may be >4 trillion organisms per kilogram of soil and more than 10,000 different species in one gram of soil. WOW! Soil organisms consist of both plants (flora) and animals (fauna). Some may be seen by ey
NPB12 Lecture 13
Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR)
Balance: The vestibular apparatus.
Adriano Moraes on Raindeer Dippin'
equilibrium potential for K+ is +20 mV up here
very high K+ concentration reticular lamina endolymph
high K+ low K+
NPB12 Lecture 8
Leprosy: (Leprous neuritis) Symptoms: Starts with numbness and potentially pain, then eventually just the numbness remains. There may be skin lesions, thickened skin that is either reddish or pale. This can affect only one part of the body
NPB 12 Lecture 2
The similarities between axon and dendrite: * Both are the extensions from the soma (cell body) of neuron cells. * Both carry electrochemical information. The differences between axons and dendrites: * Axons can be myelinated; dendrites c
NPB 12: Human Brain and Disease
Why study the nervous system? 1) The brain is the most complex of all biological organs.
2) The brain is what makes us the individuals that we are.
3) The brain makes the human race human.
4) If we know how normal brains wo