11.1) What characteristics are needed in a secure hash
1. H can be applied to a block of data of any size.
2. H produces a fixed-length output.
3. H(x) is relatively easy to compute for any given x, mak
10.1) Briefly explain Diffie-Hellman key exchange?
Two parties each create a public-key, private-key pair and communicate the public key to the
other party. The keys are designed in such a way that both sides can
9.1) What are the principal elements of a public-key crypto
A "public key cryptosystem" would be one using an asymmetric encryption algorithm. It is
related to Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and sometime
7.1)What is the difference between statistical randomness and
Statistical randomness refers to a property of a sequence of
numbers or letters such that the sequence appears random and
1. What is triple encryption?
With triple encryption, a plaintext block is encrypted by passing it
through an encryption algorithm; the result is then passed through the
same encryption algorithm again; the result of the second encryption is
OSI Security Architecture
The OSI security architecture focuses on security attacks, mechanisms, and services. These can be
Security Attack: Any action that compromises the security