1. To refine (modify) the Bernoulli's equation by introducing the hf (frictional head loss).
2. To investigate the pressure head loss due to friction in straight pipes. (D1= 10 mm, D2=7
3. To compare the calculated friction factor to the es
CENTRAL DOGMA OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: From DNA to proteins
The central dogma of the molecular biology is the explanation of the flow of genetic
information in a biological system. It was first coined by Francis Crick in 1958. It explains
how the genetic inf
FALLING FILM EVAPORATOR
Name of the evaporator Falling Film Evaporator
Biological materials Used- Whey, milk proteins, skim milk, cream and hydrolyzed
milk, sugar solutions, urea, black liquor. 
Working Principle- The falling f
Given: 1200 Chickens per hour
Given: The tank width is 3m. The center to center distance between chickens is 0.3 m.
Given: The time for the chicken to be held under water is 1 min.
Tip for Assignment 4: The
introduction information plus
background and description
can be written in several
introductory paragraphs. The
first introduction paragraph
should introduce the species
Assignment 2 Profile Outline: Black Crow
and the rest of th
Directions: In the spaces below please create a bibliography log of articles you can use for research for
your course project. Please note that you are not restricted to these articles when you actually write the
outline; rather this is t
Lymphatic and Immune system
Lymph nodes, which contain lymphocytes and macrophages, are located along lymphatic
Structure of a Lymph Node
Lymph nodes are bean-shaped, with blood vessels, nerves, and efferent lymphatic vessels
How Does DNA Replicate?
Hereditary information of an organism is encoded in its
DNA and enclosed in a cell (unless it is a virus).
All the information contained in the DNA of a single
organism is its genome.
DNA has four p
Sexual Differentiation of Brain & Physiology:
Known: The pituitary and ovary were important for ovulation.
Question: Are there differences between males and females in ability
to support ovulation?
Steroid hormone action
(Retinoid and Thyroid have several functional
Steroid hormones are lipid soluble.
Steroids can diffuse through the membrane
They can cause:
Direct Gene Activation
Binding of ligand
Binding of DNA
Binding of co regulator
Introduction to hormones
Hormones coordinate the physiology and
behavior of an animal by regulating, integrating,
and controlling its bodily functions.
Only cells with receptors for that hormone can be influenced
Called target cells
Interaction of a h
Eicosanoids are specialized FA
They include prostaglandins (PG), thromboxanes
(TX), and leukotrienes (LT)
Eicosanoids have strong hormone-like actions in the
tissues where they are produced
Eicosanoids are not stored and are ve
Steroids and its synthesis
A steroid is any of a group of natural or
belonging to the class of lipids and characterized
by a molecular core of four fused rings totaling 17
carbon atoms: three six-carbon r
Other Effects of Melatonin
How it got its name?
Rene Decartes Treatise of man (1640)- principal seat of the rational
Although such cutaneous effects of melatonin are
seen in a variety of "lower species", the hormone
does not have such effec
Y chromosome: Sry
SRY acts on the indifferent gonad to
start the process of male sexu
Under 35 ye No conception after one
year of unprotected
Over 35 ye
No conception after 6
months of unprotected
Stress on Relationships
Stress on Finances
The Immune System:
Main Topics We Cover
1. Components of the Immune
2. Defense Mechanisms
4. Monoclonal Antibodies
Components of the Immune System
White blood cells
The Immune System
Introductory lecture [ Part II ]
Dr. Meeta Rani Mannaert
Visiting Faculty, BITS-Goa,
Monday, November 24, 2008
Cells of the immune response
a method for solving complex problems by
breaking them down into simpler sub
Molecular sequence data are at the heart of
Collection, storage and
Biological Database as a collection of
data that is structured, searchable,
updated periodically, and crossreferenced
Collection, storage and maintenance
Fasta and Blast
Heuristic algorithm for database
Why search databases?
find out if a new DNA sequence already
is deposited in the databanks.
To find proteins homologous to a putative
To find similar non-coding DNA stretches in
Alignment scoring statistics and
Analysis of Biological Sequences
Which is the better alignment?
How can we tell?
We need a scoring function. For
example, match = 2, mismatch
= -1, gap = -2. Then aln #1
scores 0 and aln #2 s
Microarray: An Introduction
Gene: a region of the human genome
coding for a protein
Biologists interested in gene function and
Studying multiple genes is time consuming
Genes are differentially expressed in.
Determination of bio-molecular
Why NMR spectroscopy is good for you especially in the biological sciences
biomolecular data at atomic resolution directly
from recording a spectrum
mapping binding sites in
Assessing the significance of
Post alignment (of a pair
sequences) one gets a score.
How does one know whether this
score is high enough to provide
evidence of homology?
Statistical significance of sequence alignments
~ What one n
Topics to be covered
What is sequence analysis?
Why we need it?
How we do it?
What are the tools available?
GenBank at the National Center of Biotechnology
Information, National Library of Medicine, Washington, DC