Chapter 6 Notes, Probability
Musial, Winter, 2016
Probability: is the frequency of times an outcome occurs divided by the total of possible
outcomes. The symbol is p. Probability is used to predict what kind of samples are likely to
be obtained from a pop
The distinction between experimental and quasi-experimental research (Musial)
Quasi-experimental designs are experiments that have treatments, outcome measures and
experimental units, but do not use random assignment to create the comparisons from which
Chapter 7 Notes Musial (Winter, 2016)
The Distribution of Sample Means
While working with z scores and probability, we assumed that a single score (n= 1) was used.
We either used a single raw score or a single z score.
The majority of behavioral s
Chapter 9: Introduction to the t Statistic (an alternative to z)
Musial, Winter, 2016
Paradox: We have learned how to compute a z-test. However, in the behavioral sciences, it
is rare for a researcher to know what the population variance act
Chapter 8: Hypothesis Testing Winter, 2016 (Musial)
Hypothesis Test: Statistical Method that uses sample data to evaluate a hypothesis about a
A Hypothesis Illustration:
We state a hypothesis about a population e.g. Body fat content of tri-at
Chapter 5 Notes: z-scores (Musial) Winter, 2016
Characteristics of the Normal Distribution:
1) The normal distribution is mathematically defined. The shape of the distribution is
specified by an equation that relates each score that is distributed across
Chapter 4 Variability Notes Dr. Musial
Variability is a measure of spread of scores in a distribution. It ranges from zero to infinity.
8 No Variabilityall scores are the same
* There must be variability in
Chapter 1 Notes (Musial)
Descriptive Statistics: Procedures used to describe or summarize numeric observations,
referred to as data (plural). For example, we could describe the area of psychological
content interest among UM-D Psychology majors: 50% clini
Chapter 3: CENTRAL TENDENCY
is sigma. X is pronounced sum of X.
The X for scores cfw_5, 6, 9 is = to 5 + 6 + 9 = 20, so the X = 20.
N= population and n= sample
Central tendency are statistical measures for locating a single score that