2 measured variables = association claim
- Bivariate association: 2 variables; an association that involves exactly two variables
- Types of bivariate associations:
o Two continuous variables
Visual representation: scatterplot
Multivariate Correlational Research
REMINDER! Requirements to determine causation:
-Covariance of cause and effect As one changes, the other also changes.
-Temporal precedence Cause must precede effect.
Research Proposal PSYCH 12 Spring 2015
Throughout the course, you will learn a great deal about research methodology in psychology. This paper
is your opportunity to apply your new knowledge as you create your own research proposal examining a
Replicability and Generalizability
Replicability: if you did the same study again, would u get the same result?
Why is this important?
- Research integrity
- A study MUST be replicable
Important questions to consider
- How should we define sam
Does writing about a traumatic experience reduce
negative emotions associated with the experience?
Write about the experience OR Write about a neutral
Dependent variable: negative
Ethical Considerations, Part 1
Stanford Prison Experiment Aftermath:
-Zimbardo: Evil comes from a lack of personal responsibility.
>How should ethical guidelines for research address this issue?
-What lasting consequences arose from the prison experiment?
Review different types of variables and validities
Pilot Study: Conducted before the actual study to check the construct validity of a manipulation.
Manipulation Check: An extra measure designed to see how well a manipulation wor
Defining Variables, 3 Claims, & 4(and ) Validities
-Variable: Anything the researcher measures or manipulates that has an ability to vary or
>Levels: The values of a variable in a study
-Constant: Something that could vary but only has
Quasi-Experiments and Small-N Designs
-Can one difference be different, and not the other?
>In our examples, no. But with statistical significance testing, yes
>Hard to show visually
Question: Do people who are bili
Factorial Design: An experiment with 2 or more independent variables
- Factor: another name for independent variable
- Condition: one level of an independent variable
- Cell: In a between-subjects factorial design, a particular combination of the conditi
The Belmont Report
A broad set of principles to guide research with human subjects. Motivated by problems with
the Tuskegee Syphilis Study.
1. Respect for persons: informed consent, avoid coercion, particularity for groups with redu
-Population: Entire set of people you are interested in.
-Sample: The subset of people you actually study.
>USUALLY. This can also be a sample of observations.
>Census: A study that involves the entire population.
>Taking a census isn
Methods of Measurement: Observation and Physiology
-Observational measure: Recording Actual behavior (not thought or feelings)
-Types of observational measures
>Video or audio recordings
>Live observations: visual and/or audio
Validities and Introduction to Measurement
-Which validity is appropriate to interrogate for every study?
>Construct, because youre always measuring something
-Which validities are not always relevant for a study?
Ex: Does self-esteem predict better academic performance in children?
Measured variables, not any particular statistic, make a study correlational
A statistical relationship between exactly two variables
Midterm Study Guide
- Reading, understanding, using information from research
- Doctors, therapists, teachers, etc. need to know the research behind evidence-based treatments to
decide what treatments to adopt
- Being a
Developing and Evaluating Measures
Partial paper vs research paper
Partial paper: to learn how to analyze data and write APA style results and discussion sections
about the data.
Research paper: to apply all aspects of your developing know