Due by 4pm Tuesday February 21
1. a. Draw the structure for the following sentence: (include the DP numberings in the tree)
[DP1 The frail woman] showed [DP2 Jack] [DP3 [DP4 Mary]s picture of [DP5 a horse].
b. For each of
TOPIC 1: WHAT IS PHONOLOGY?
Examples of some of the diverse things that phonologists study
Example 1: CLAIM-the following words are composed of the same sounds (il, p, s),
simply arranged in different orders.
Final Examination Study Guide
These are the main topics that you should prepare for the final examination. The exam
consists of problems similar to those on Assignments.
Phonemes and allophones (contrast and complementary distribution)
aI I ue au
ou ia i ua uo
TOPIC 2: PHONEMES AND ALLOPHONES
Question: Why would most (all?) English speakers say that lips, slip, spill, Pils, and lisp
comprise the same sounds in different orders?
Answer: Although the physical SOUNDS differ from word to word, the words do
TOPIC 4: FEATURES
Representation-a formal device that attempts to model knowledge
In order to understand the principles of virtually any cognitive activity we must design
representations that abstract away from particular instantiations of the activity.
TOPIC 3: NATURAL CLASSES, NATURAL RULES, RULE ORDERING
NATURALNESS IN PHONOLOGY
Language sounds fall into natural classes according to their articulatory and/or acoustic
properties. We name these properties using features like [labial], [v
LINGUISTICS 120A, SPRING 2016
For this assignment, you are going to become metrists, figuring out how poets in two
poetic traditions have made their choice of words conform to metrical regularities.
I. (13 points tot
LING 120B- Jan 13th
Monday 10.30-12.30pm, Campbell 2209
Exercise 1 from homework
From the lecture, we arrive at the following conclusion about the distributio
LING 120B - 21st Jan
Review for constituency
- A constituent is a syntactic unit that functions as part of a larger unit
within a within a sentence
eg. [The student [with [long hair] [walked home]
Note: single words (but there are exceptions: certain co
LING 120B-18th Feb
Review for Head Movement
Relative verb adverb position. French vs English.
Je mange souvent des pommes
I often eat apples.
Auxiliary inversion in English yes-no questions.
a. John should go to the
LING120B- 3rd March
Review Object Raising/Control
Similar to subject raising verbs, object raising verbs do not assign any thetaroles.
a. Everyone expected that Nadal would win the French Open
b. Everyone expected Nadal to win the Fren
LING 120B-25th Feb
Review for Raising and Control
Raising and Control verbs both take nonfinite complements that have a null
(1) a. John wants [ec1 to travel to Cambodia].
b. John seems [ec to have gone missing].
- Raising verbs all
LING 120B-4th Feb
Review for Merge and Move
Two structure building operations: Merge and Move
-both operations are driven by features where features have to be checked off
-Merge: Combines objects to check selectional features
-Move: Re-position objects t
Linguistics 120A 2016S, Quiz 1: Announcement
Korean stop phonemes and allophones: Korean has the following stop and affricate
sounds (among others):
[p, b, t, d, t, d , k, g]
The PHONEMIC vowels of Korean are the following:
Linguistics 120A, Spring 2016
Quiz 9, Announcement
The focus of this quiz is how to restrict a phonological rule to apply in a regular way, but
only to subset of all the itmes to which it could potentially apply.
English NOUN VERB conversion by consonant
Due by 4pm Tuesday March 13
1. Draw the S-structure tree for the following French sentence (using French words). As we did
in class, disregard ne for purposes of your tree structures. Assume Tense contains [PRESENT].
4. Syntactic distributional tests revisited
4.1 Noun environment
D _ V.
Only nouns can occur here,2 but not every determiner combines with every noun, e.g.
A dog barked. Many paintings fell. Some music played.
*A furniture, *Much statue
The lexicon is where we store information about individual lexical items that is not predictable based on
more general properties of the grammar.
What information do we need to store in lexical entries? Consider the verb g
Binding Theory (Part 2)
C-command: A node c-commands its sisters and their descendants.
Binding: A DP X binds a DP Y just in case X c-commands Y and X and Y are coindexed.
Binding Domain (first version): The binding domain of a DP
English verbal morphology (contd)
The three movement rules we posited last time (T-to-V/affix hopping, V-to-T, and T-to-C) are all
instances where a head moves to another head position; in general this process is called head
Another case of XP movement: Raising to subject
- consider the semantic relations in the following sentence:
(59) Time seems to elapse slowly in the tropics.
- intuitively, time is something that elapses, so time should be an argument of
Recap of last time
- if you are selected by a head you must be within the maximal projection of that head (at D-structure);
in particular, the external argument of a verb originates in Spec-VP; as a consequence Spec-TP is
always empty at
Recap: Subject Control versus Raising to Subject
- verbs like hope, want, try are Subject Control (SC) verbs: they assign a theta role to their subject, they
take an infinitival CP complement with a PRO subject
- verbs like seem and be l
Due by 4pm Tuesday January 24
Note for nonnative English speakers: This assignment, more so than those to follow, requires
testing the grammaticality of (potential) sentences that you have to invent. This will be hard. Tr
Due by 4pm Tuesday January 31
1. Consider the following two sentences, whose VPs have been bracketed:
(1) The terrorist [blew up the building].
(2) The puppy [ran up the stairs].
Although they look similar, the two VPs ac
Due by 4pm Tuesday February 7
1. Draw the complete tree structure for the following DPs. Do not use any triangles except for
names and pronouns. Show all levels of X-bar structure and label all nodes.
a. Bill and Susans f