Biological coupling of element cycles:
the equation of life in the oceans
The elemental composition of
Ocean and Climate
1. Modern equilibrium: surface heat and water conditions
2. Decadal natural variability
climate noise in time series but with characteristic spatial patterns (e.g.,
ENSO), identied by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs)
Oceanic Dynamical and Material Equations
and General Circulation Models
The ocean is a rotating, stratied, weakly compressible uid with a functionally
complex equation of state (EOS) for seawater.
The primary variables are velocity u, pressure p, density
Oceanic Measurements and Large-Scale Patterns
The range of space and time scales for a variety of ocean phenomena, and the types of
observational platforms from which they can be measured (Dickey, 2001). Climate here includes the
Life in the Surface Layer
Satellite-derived annual mean chlorophyll-a concentration, log(ChlA[mg/m3]), the most widespread
measurement of biological activity. The first-order interpretation is that this is integrated biomass in
the euphotic zone, but this
Sub-Basin-Scale Variability in the Interior of the Ocean:
Waves, Eddies, and Turbulence
The locally measurable reality.
Climate is what you expect; weather is what you get.
Manifestations of many distinctive processes.
Here we derive the simplest (and oldest; Stommel, 1948) theory to explain western boundary
currents like the Gulf Stream, and then discuss the relation of the theory to more realistic gyres.
This expands the material in the lecture slides in ci