ESS 17: Dinosaurs and Their Relatives
JURASSIC LARK: Reconstructing a paleo-environment.
You will be reconstructing a Mesozoic environment in todays lab. In order to do this,
you will need to look at some fossils from an important
Lecture #3 pt.1
3 types of rocks:
Elements like oxygen, silicon, magnesium, sodium, calcium,
and so on are the building blocks of rocks.
Minerals: Silicates, Carbonates, Oxides, Sulfides, Halides.
Rocks are a combi
Lecture #3 pt. 2
the father of modern geology
Concepts of deep time and uniformitarianism
Opposed to catastrophism
Concept of Deep Time - large amounts of time and recurring
processes can account for the observation we make
Lecture #3 pt. 3
Harry H. Hess
Naval Sonar operator and geologist
mapped the topography and magnetism of the ocean floor
He found the worlds longest mountain range, volcanoes and
heat output at the crest of the mountains, gradation of
sediment thickness o
Earth formed 4.5 billion years ago and then the moon formed
Life started 3.5 to 3.8 billion years ago. (as soon as the
There were stuff like methane, ammonia, water, nitrogen,
hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and oxyge
Life started 3.5-3.8 billion years ago.
Eukaryotes include humans.
Ediacaran Fauna- First Multicellular life.
Another line of evidence of multicellular life is Burrows.
What is a dinosaur?
A taxon is a grouping of organisms.
We can define taxa o
Lecture 6 pt. 1
Crocs have 4 chambered hearts.
Birds have 4 chambered hearts.
Birds have a number of air sacs connecting to their
respiratory pathway, which allows for more efficient one-way
airflow during breathing.
It seems that some dinosaurs had
Lecture 6 pt.2
Dinosaurs did live near the poles (modern ectotherms dont)
But, the Mesozoic was a much warmer time
Maybe dinosaurs migrated
- Dinosaurs have the same predator prey ratios as mammals
It is Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882)
Feb 12, 1809- born in Maer, England
1817- Mother dies
1825- Starts at Edinburgh to become a doctor
Begins formal study of nature under Robert Grant
Simplified Dinosaur Phylogeny:
Lecture 7 pt.2
Mid late teriassic (230 Ma)
Possibly basal Theropod
Defined by lack of character
Don't get very big
Mostly very primitive looking
Mainly small, North American and African forms
Late trials and jur
Lecture 8 pt.1
If you are carnivorous, and selection favors larger size, then
Tyrannosaurus was not a fast runner.
Estimates done with modeling:
Allosaurus and Tyrannosaurus (4-11m/s)(8-25mph)
(much) Faster speeds for smaller t
Lecture 8 pt.2
Major plant groups in the Mesozoic
Vascular tissue and spores
Naked seed plants
Develop fruiting body that releases spores
Late Jurassic: huge herbivores
mid jurassic - end Cretaceous
Laurasia And Australia
-Ornithopods and Sex
Ornithopods: bird feet
The herding herbivores of the late Mesozoic
Similar to modern bovids, zebras
best record of
Lecture 2 pt.2
The shape of teeth tell us about what they eat and how they
process their foods.
Dinosaurs have thecodont dentition with teeth set in sockets.
Acrodont (fish, other reptiles)
Pleurodont (some lizards)
Most vertebrates are
Lecture 2 pt.3
Cranial Kinesis in Hadrosaurs:
Predentary Bone in Ornithischians
Cheeks are important if you chew.
Eating meat is easy
Just tear off a chunk and swallow.
Meat is relatively easy to digest.
Requires blade-like teeth for tea
You dont need to know the names of the essential and nonessential amino acids.
know what complete proteins are.
You dont need to know all the details of gene expression.
different layers of the blood vessels.
Lecture #2 pt.2
Jack Horner found Dino embryos and dino breeding ground
where they laid eggs and raised their eggs similar to birds.
Bob Bakker publicized dinos as being active and having
Lecture #2 pt.1
Earliest fossil hunters often thought the bones were
monsters which affected artwork and mythology.
The big hole in the middle of the forehead of an elephant
fossil is for the nostril/trunk.
Gideon and Mary Ann Mantell were the first ones
Paleontology: the study of the remains of ancient life,
including body, chemical, and trace fossils.
Body fossils are bones, teeth and stuff like that.
Trace Fossils are stuff like poop, and footprints.
Chemical fossils are chemical traces of l
Most dinosaurs have similar teeth throughout their jaws. This means they are: Select one:
You had two generations of teeth, your 'baby teeth' and your ad
Question Bank for Final Exam.Dinosaurs and Their Relatives. Winter 2014. Final
will take place on Wednesday, March 19 Ackerman Grand Ballroom11:30am to
Your final will consist of somewhere between 60-100 questions, all of which will be