ELECTRIC CHARGE AND ELECTRIC FIELD
21
21.1.
(a) IDENTIFY and SET UP: Use the charge of one electron ( -1.602 10 -19 C) to find the number of electrons required to produce the net charge. EXECUTE:
GAUSS'S LAW
22
^ E = E cos dA, where is the angle between the normal to the sheet n and the
22.1.
(a) IDENTIFY and SET UP:
electric field E . EXECUTE: In this problem E and cos are constant ov
SOUND AND HEARING
16
16.1.
IDENTIFY and SET UP: Eq.(15.1) gives the wavelength in terms of the frequency. Use Eq.(16.5) to relate the pressure and displacement amplitudes. EXECUTE: (a) = v / f = (
U NITS, PHYSICAL
QUANTITIES,
A ND VECTORS
1
L EARNING G OALS
B y studying this duJpter, you willll!tlm:
What the fundamental quantities
of mechanics are, and the units
physicists use to measure them.
5
APPLYING
NEWTON'S LAWS
L EARNING G OALS
B y studying this chllpter, you Wll1I011m:
How to use Newton's first law to
solve problems involving the forces
that act on a body in equilibrium.
How to use
9
ROTATION OF
RIGID BODIES
?All segments of a
rotating helicopter
blade have the same
angular velocity and
angular acceleration.
Compared to a given
blade segment, how
many times greater is
t he linea
N EWTON'S LAWS
OF M OTION
4
L EARNING G OALS
B y studying this duJpter, you willll!tlm:
What the concept of force means
in physics, and why forces are
vectors.
?The standing child
is pushing t he chil
POTENTIAL ENERGY
A ND ENERGY
C ONSERVATION
7
L EARNING G OALS
B y studying this duJpter. you willll!tlm:
How t o use the concept of gravitational potential energy in problems
that involve vertical mot
2
M OTION A LONG
A STRAIGHT LINE
L EARNING G OALS
B y studying this chllpter, you Wll1I011m:
How to describe straight-line
motion in terms of average velocity,
instantaneous velocity, average
accelera
NUCLEAR PHYSICS
43
43.1.
(a) (b) (c)
28 14 85 37
Si has 14 protons and 14 neutrons. Rb has 37 protons and 48 neutrons. Tl has 81 protons and 124 neutrons.
205 81
43.2.
(a) Using R = (1.2 fm)A1
PARTICLE PHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY
44
44.1.
(a) IDENTIFY and SET UP: Use Eq.(37.36) to calculate the kinetic energy K. 1 EXECUTE: K = mc 2 - 1 = 0.1547 mc 2 2 2 1- v / c
m = 9.109 10 -31 kg, so K
BRIEF CONTENTS
Mechanics
1
2
U nits, Physical Quantities, a nd Vectors
M otion Along a S traight Line
3
4
5
6
M otion i n Two o r T hree Dimensions
7
25
71
N ewton's Laws o f M otion
107
A pplying New
DETAILED CONTENTS
5
MECHANICS
5.1
1
UNITS, PHYSICAL
QUANTITIES, A ND VECTORS
1.1
T he N ature o f P hysics
S olving Physics Problems
S tandards and Units
U nit C onsistency and Conversions
U ncertaint
DETAILED CONTENTS
5
MECHANICS
5.1
1
UNITS, PHYSICAL
QUANTITIES, A ND VECTORS
1.1
T he N ature o f P hysics
S olving Physics Problems
S tandards and Units
U nit C onsistency and Conversions
U ncertaint
M OTION I N T WO
OR THREE DIMENSIONS
3
L EARNING G OALS
B y studying this duJpter. you willll!tlm:
How to represent the position of a
body in two or three dimensions
using vectors.
?If a car is going
W ORK A ND
KINETIC ENERGY
6
L EARNING G OALS
B y sIIIdying this chapter, you willl.llm:
?
When a shotgun fires,
t he expanding gases in
t he barrel push t he
shell out. According t o
Newton's third la
M OMENTUM, IMPULSE,
A ND COLLISIONS
8
L earning G oals
B y studying this duJpter. you willll!tlm:
?Which could potentially c ause y ou t he
g reater injury: being
tackled by a lightweight, fast-moving
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
41
L = l (l + 1) . Lz = ml . l = 0, 1, 2,., n - 1. ml = 0, 1, 2,., l . cos = Lz / L .
41.1.
IDENTIFY and SET UP:
EXECUTE: (a) l = 0 : L = 0 , Lz = 0 . l = 1: L = 2 , Lz = ,0, -
CAPACITANCE AND DIELECTRICS
24
24.1.
24.2.
24.3.
Q Vab SET UP: 1 F = 10 -6 F EXECUTE: Q = CVab = (7.28 10 -6 F)(25.0 V) = 1.82 10 -4 C = 182 C EVALUATE: One plate has charge + Q and the other
CURRENT, RESISTANCE, AND ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE
25
25.1.
25.2.
IDENTIFY: I = Q / t . SET UP: 1.0 h = 3600 s EXECUTE: Q = It = (3.6 A)(3.0)(3600 s) = 3.89 104 C. EVALUATE: Compared to typical charges
DIRECT-CURRENT CIRCUITS
26
26.1.
26.2.
26.3.
IDENTIFY: The newly-formed wire is a combination of series and parallel resistors. SET UP: Each of the three linear segments has resistance R/3. The c
MAGNETIC FIELD AND MAGNETIC FORCES
27
27.1.
! IDENTIFY and SET UP: Apply Eq.(27.2) to calculate F . Use the cross products of unit vectors from Section 1.10. ! ^ j EXECUTE: v = ( +4.19 104 m/s ) i
SOURCES OF MAGNETIC FIELD
28
28.1.
! ^ EXECUTE: (a) r = ( 0.500 m ) i , r = 0.500 m ! ! ^ v r = vr^ i = -vrk j ^
! IDENTIFY and SET UP: Use Eq.(28.2) to calculate B at each point. ! ! ! ! ! qv
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
29
29.1.
29.2.
IDENTIFY: Altering the orientation of a coil relative to a magnetic field changes the magnetic flux through the coil. This change then induces an emf in th
INDUCTANCE
30
Apply Eq.(30.4). di (a) E2 = M 1 = (3.25 10-4 H)(830 A/s) = 0.270 V; yes, it is constant. dt
30.1.
IDENTIFY and SET UP: EXECUTE: (b) E1 = M
di2 ; M is a property of the pair of coils
ALTERNATING CURRENT
31
31.1.
IDENTIFY: SET UP: EXECUTE:
i = I cos t and I rms = I/ 2.
The specified value is the root-mean-square current; I rms = 0.34 A.
(a) I rms = 0.34 A
31.2.
(b) I = 2 I r
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
32
32.1.
IDENTIFY: Since the speed is constant, distance x = ct. SET UP: The speed of light is c = 3.00 108 m/s . 1 yr = 3.156 107 s.
32.2.
x 3.84 108 m = = 1.28 s c 3.00 10
THE NATURE AND PROPAGATION OF LIGHT
33
33.1.
IDENTIFY: For reflection, r = a . SET UP: The desired path of the ray is sketched in Figure 33.1. 14.0 cm EXECUTE: tan = , so = 50.6 . r = 90 - =
GEOMETRIC OPTICS
34
y = 4.85 cm
Figure 34.1
34.1.
IDENTIFY and SET UP: Plane mirror: s = - s (Eq.34.1) and m = y / y = - s / s = +1 (Eq.34.2). We are given s and y and are asked to find s and y. EX